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Serum GFAP and UCH-L1 for the prediction of neurological outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients

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  • Florian Ebner
  • Marion Moseby-Knappe
  • Niklas Mattsson-Carlgren
  • Gisela Lilja
  • Irina Dragancea
  • Johan Undén
  • Hans Friberg
  • David Erlinge
  • Jesper Kjaergaard
  • Christian Hassager
  • Matt P Wise
  • Michael Kuiper
  • Pascal Stammet
  • Michael Wanscher
  • Janneke Horn
  • Susann Ullén
  • Tobias Cronberg
  • Niklas Nielsen
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OBJECTIVE: Neurological outcome prediction is crucial early after cardiac arrest. Serum biomarkers released from brain cells after hypoxic-ischaemic injury may aid in outcome prediction. The only serum biomarker presently recommended in the European Resuscitation Council prognostication guidelines is neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but NSE has limitations. In this study, we therefore analyzed the outcome predictive accuracy of the serum biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in patients after cardiac arrest.

METHODS: Serum GFAP and UCH-L1 were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was neurological function at 6-month follow-up assessed by the cerebral performance category scale (CPC), dichotomized into good (CPC1-2) and poor (CPC3-5). Prognostic accuracies were tested with receiver-operating characteristics by calculating the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUROC) and compared to the AUROC of NSE.

RESULTS: 717 patients were included in the study. GFAP and UCH-L1 discriminated between good and poor neurological outcome at all time-points when used alone (AUROC GFAP 0.88-0.89; UCH-L1 0.85-0.87) or in combination (AUROC 0.90-0.91). The combined model was superior to GFAP and UCH-L1 separately and NSE (AUROC 0.75-0.85) at all time-points. At specificities ≥95%, the combined model predicted poor outcome with a higher sensitivity than NSE at 24 h and with similar sensitivities at 48 and 72 h.

CONCLUSION: GFAP and UCH-L1 predicted poor neurological outcome with high accuracy. Their combination may be of special interest for early prognostication after cardiac arrest where it performed significantly better than the currently recommended biomarker NSE.

Original languageEnglish
JournalResuscitation
Volume154
Pages (from-to)61-68
Number of pages8
ISSN0300-9572
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

ID: 61746804