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Pediatric Candidemia Epidemiology and Morbidities: A Nationwide Cohort

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BACKGROUND: Candidemia is the most frequent pediatric fungal infection, but incompletely elucidated in population-based settings. We performed a nationwide cohort study including all pediatric patients with candidemia in Denmark from 2004 to 2014 to determine age, incidence, species distribution, underlying diseases, patient management and outcomes. METHODS: All candidemia episodes were identified through the active nationwide fungemia surveillance program. Susceptibility testing followed the EUCAST E.Def 7 (European Committee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing, Edition Definitive) reference method. χ test, Fisher exact test and Venn diagrams were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three pediatric patients (≤ 15 years) with 158 candidemia episodes were identified. The overall annual incidence rate was 1.3/100,000 population, higher for neonates (5.7/100,000 live births) and low birth weight neonates (103.8/100,000 live births). From 2004 to 2009 to 2010 to 2014, the proportion of Candida albicans decreased from 74.4% to 64.7%, whereas fluconazole resistance increased from 7.8% to 17.7%. Virtually all patients had at least 1 underlying disease (98.6%) and multimorbidity was common (43.5%, ≥2 underlying diseases). Underlying diseases differed by age with heart malformations and gastrointestinal disease prevalent in children younger than 3 years. The overall 30-days mortality was 10.2% and highest for neonates (17.1%). Mortality increased from 2004 to 2010 to 2014, driven by an increase among older children. CONCLUSION: This first nationwide epidemiologic study of pediatric candidemia confirmed a high incidence among neonates and a substantial burden of comorbidities. Moreover, an increasing proportion of fluconazole resistant nonalbicans species was observed. Our findings underline the importance of choosing correct treatment and continuous surveillance of pediatric candidemia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Pediatric infectious disease journal
Volume38
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)464-469
Number of pages6
ISSN0891-3668
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2019

ID: 56272959