Research
Print page Print page
Switch language
Rigshospitalet - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
Published

Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise: A Danish Nurse Cohort study

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

So, R, Jørgensen, JT, Lim, YH, Mehta, AJ, Amini, H, Mortensen, LH, Westendorp, R, Ketzel, M, Hertel, O, Brandt, J, Christensen, JH, Geels, C, Frohn, LM, Sisgaard, T, Bräuner, EV, Jensen, SS, Backalarz, C, Simonsen, MK, Loft, S, Cole-Hunter, T & Andersen, ZJ 2020, 'Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise: A Danish Nurse Cohort study', Environment International, vol. 143, 105983, pp. 105983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983

APA

So, R., Jørgensen, J. T., Lim, Y. H., Mehta, A. J., Amini, H., Mortensen, L. H., Westendorp, R., Ketzel, M., Hertel, O., Brandt, J., Christensen, J. H., Geels, C., Frohn, L. M., Sisgaard, T., Bräuner, E. V., Jensen, S. S., Backalarz, C., Simonsen, M. K., Loft, S., ... Andersen, Z. J. (2020). Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise: A Danish Nurse Cohort study. Environment International, 143, 105983. [105983]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983

CBE

So R, Jørgensen JT, Lim YH, Mehta AJ, Amini H, Mortensen LH, Westendorp R, Ketzel M, Hertel O, Brandt J, Christensen JH, Geels C, Frohn LM, Sisgaard T, Bräuner EV, Jensen SS, Backalarz C, Simonsen MK, Loft S, Cole-Hunter T, Andersen ZJ. 2020. Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise: A Danish Nurse Cohort study. Environment International. 143:105983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983

MLA

Vancouver

Author

So, Rina ; Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming ; Lim, Youn Hee ; Mehta, Amar J. ; Amini, Heresh ; Mortensen, Laust H. ; Westendorp, Rudi ; Ketzel, Matthias ; Hertel, Ole ; Brandt, Jørgen ; Christensen, Jesper H. ; Geels, Camilla ; Frohn, Lise M. ; Sisgaard, Torben ; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik ; Jensen, Steen Solvang ; Backalarz, Claus ; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld ; Loft, Steffen ; Cole-Hunter, Tom ; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic. / Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise : A Danish Nurse Cohort study. In: Environment International. 2020 ; Vol. 143. pp. 105983.

Bibtex

@article{90746cee9865459996c2614ce2e93daa,
title = "Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise: A Danish Nurse Cohort study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure.OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM 2.5), <10 µm (PM 10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (L den) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM 2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 μg/m 3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM 2.5 < 20 µg/m 3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM 10 and none with NO 2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM 2.5 and PM 10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM 2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise. ",
keywords = "Air pollution, Cardiovascular disease, Danish Nurse Cohort, Diabetes, Mortality, Respiratory disease",
author = "Rina So and J{\o}rgensen, {Jeanette Therming} and Lim, {Youn Hee} and Mehta, {Amar J.} and Heresh Amini and Mortensen, {Laust H.} and Rudi Westendorp and Matthias Ketzel and Ole Hertel and J{\o}rgen Brandt and Christensen, {Jesper H.} and Camilla Geels and Frohn, {Lise M.} and Torben Sisgaard and Br{\"a}uner, {Elvira Vaclavik} and Jensen, {Steen Solvang} and Claus Backalarz and Simonsen, {Mette Kildev{\ae}ld} and Steffen Loft and Tom Cole-Hunter and Andersen, {Zorana Jovanovic}",
note = "Copyright {\textcopyright} 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.",
year = "2020",
month = oct,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983",
language = "English",
volume = "143",
pages = "105983",
journal = "Environmental International",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Pergamon",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution and mortality adjusting for road traffic noise

T2 - A Danish Nurse Cohort study

AU - So, Rina

AU - Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming

AU - Lim, Youn Hee

AU - Mehta, Amar J.

AU - Amini, Heresh

AU - Mortensen, Laust H.

AU - Westendorp, Rudi

AU - Ketzel, Matthias

AU - Hertel, Ole

AU - Brandt, Jørgen

AU - Christensen, Jesper H.

AU - Geels, Camilla

AU - Frohn, Lise M.

AU - Sisgaard, Torben

AU - Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik

AU - Jensen, Steen Solvang

AU - Backalarz, Claus

AU - Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld

AU - Loft, Steffen

AU - Cole-Hunter, Tom

AU - Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

N1 - Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

PY - 2020/10/1

Y1 - 2020/10/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure.OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM 2.5), <10 µm (PM 10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (L den) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM 2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 μg/m 3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM 2.5 < 20 µg/m 3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM 10 and none with NO 2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM 2.5 and PM 10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM 2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.

AB - BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure.OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM 2.5), <10 µm (PM 10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (L den) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM 2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 μg/m 3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM 2.5 < 20 µg/m 3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM 10 and none with NO 2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM 2.5 and PM 10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM 2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.

KW - Air pollution

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Danish Nurse Cohort

KW - Diabetes

KW - Mortality

KW - Respiratory disease

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85088658597&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105983

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 32736159

AN - SCOPUS:85088658597

VL - 143

SP - 105983

JO - Environmental International

JF - Environmental International

SN - 0160-4120

M1 - 105983

ER -

ID: 60732722