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Dose-Response Association Between Level of Physical Activity and Mortality in Normal, Elevated, and High Blood Pressure

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  • Gowsini Joseph
  • Jacob Louis Marott
  • Christian Torp-Pedersen
  • Tor Biering-Sørensen
  • Gitte Nielsen
  • Ann-Eva Christensen
  • Martin Berg Johansen
  • Peter Schnohr
  • Peter Sogaard
  • Rasmus Mogelvang
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It has been a challenge to verify the dose of exercise that will produce the maximum health benefits in hypertension. This study aimed to explore the association between level of daily physical activity, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcome at different blood pressure levels. A random sample of 18 974 white men and women aged 20 to 98 years were examined in a prospective cardiovascular population study. Self-reported activity level in leisure-time was drawn from the Physical Activity Questionnaire (level I: inactivity; II: light activity; and III: moderate/high-level activity). Blood pressure was defined as normal blood pressure: <120/<80 mm Hg; Prehypertension: 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; Stage I hypertension: 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; Stage II hypertension ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. The mean follow-up time was 23.4±11.7 years. At all levels of blood pressure, higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower all-cause mortality in a dose-response pattern. The pattern remained unchanged after adjustment for following confounders: sex, age, smoking status, education, diabetes mellitus, previous cardiovascular disease, body mass index, and calendar time. Compared with inactivity, following hazard ratios were found for stage I hypertension: light activity, hazard ratio 0.78 (0.72-0.84; P<0.001), moderate/high-level activity, hazard ratio 0.69 (0.63-0.75; P<0.001). At all levels of blood pressure, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly reduced independent of the level of physical activity. In conclusion, the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality was present in an inverse dose-response pattern at all levels of blood pressure. Physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiovascular events independent of the level of physical activity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHypertension
Volume74
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1307-1315
ISSN0194-911X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

ID: 58139632