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Current Evidence on the Efficacy of Gluten-Free Diets in Multiple Sclerosis, Psoriasis, Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

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In this review, we summarize the clinical data addressing a potential role for gluten in multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs). Furthermore, data on the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related antibodies in the above patient groups are presented. Adequately powered and properly controlled intervention trials investigating the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in non-celiac patients with MS, psoriasis, T1D or ATDs are lacking. Only one clinical trial has studied the effects of a GFD among patients with MS. The trial found significant results, but it is subject to major methodological limitations. A few publications have found beneficial effects of a GFD in a subgroup of patients with psoriasis that were seropositive for anti-gliadin or deamidated gliadin antibodies, but no effects were seen among seronegative patients. Studies on the role of gluten in T1D are contradictive, however, it seems likely that a GFD may contribute to normalizing metabolic control without affecting levels of islet autoantibodies. Lastly, the effects of a GFD in non-celiac patients with ATDs have not been studied yet, but some publications report that thyroid-related antibodies respond to a GFD in patients with concomitant CD and ATDs. Overall, there is currently not enough evidence to recommend a GFD to non-celiac patients with MS, psoriasis, ATDs or T1D.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number8
ISSN2072-6643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020

ID: 61518523