Research
Print page Print page
Switch language
Rigshospitalet - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
Published

Association between maternal gluten intake and type 1 diabetes in offspring: national prospective cohort study in Denmark

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

DOI

  1. Pre-eclampsia and risk of later kidney disease: nationwide cohort study

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  2. Viagra for fetal growth restriction: STRIDER Consortium replies to letter by Symonds and Budge

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  1. Antibiotic use during pregnancy and childhood overweight: A population-based nationwide cohort study

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  2. Investigating the aetiology of adverse events following HPV vaccination with systems vaccinology

    Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

  3. A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  4. Possible Prevention of Diabetes with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

  5. Oral insulin does not alter gut microbiota composition of NOD mice

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

View graph of relations

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prenatal gluten exposure and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes in humans.

DESIGN: National prospective cohort study.

SETTING: National health information registries in Denmark.

PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant Danish women enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort, between January 1996 and October 2002, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal gluten intake, based on maternal consumption of gluten containing foods, was reported in a 360 item food frequency questionnaire at week 25 of pregnancy. Information on type 1 diabetes occurrence in the participants' children, from 1 January 1996 to 31 May 2016, were obtained through registry linkage to the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes.

RESULTS: The study comprised 101 042 pregnancies in 91 745 women, of whom 70 188 filled out the food frequency questionnaire. After correcting for multiple pregnancies, pregnancies ending in abortions, stillbirths, lack of information regarding the pregnancy, and pregnancies with implausibly high or low energy intake, 67 565 pregnancies (63 529 women) were included. The average gluten intake was 13.0 g/day, ranging from less than 7 g/day to more than 20 g/day. The incidence of type 1 diabetes among children in the cohort was 0.37% (n=247) with a mean follow-up period of 15.6 years (standard deviation 1.4). Risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring increased proportionally with maternal gluten intake during pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.001 to 1.72) per 10 g/day increase of gluten). Women with the highest gluten intake versus those with the lowest gluten intake (≥20 v <7 g/day) had double the risk of type 1 diabetes development in their offspring (adjusted hazard ratio 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 4.00)).

CONCLUSIONS: High gluten intake by mothers during pregnancy could increase the risk of their children developing type 1 diabetes. However, confirmation of these findings are warranted, preferably in an intervention setting.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ
Volume362
Pages (from-to)k3547
ISSN1756-1833
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Sep 2018

ID: 56109216