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Vitamin K antagonists vs. direct oral anticoagulants after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in atrial fibrillation

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AIMS: To examine the risk of arterial thromboembolism, bleeding, and all-cause mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) vs. vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nationwide observational cohort study, 735 patients undergoing TAVI from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2017 with a history of AF and who were treated with oral anticoagulants were identified using data from Danish nationwide registries. Of these, 219 (29.8%) and 516 (70.2%) patients were treated with DOACs and VKAs, respectively. The DOAC group was characterized by a higher prevalence of previous arterial thromboembolism and a lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease compared with the VKA group. The distribution of age, sex, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, and concomitant antiplatelet therapy was similar between groups. Compared with VKA, treatment with DOACs was not associated with a significantly different 3-year absolute risk of arterial thromboembolism [9.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.7-16.5%) vs. 7.4% (95% CI 4.9-10.5%) in the DOAC and VKA group, respectively], bleeding [14.3% (95% CI 7.6-22.9%) vs. 13.3% (95% CI 9.9-17.1%)], or all-cause mortality [32.7% (95% CI 21.8-44.0%) vs. 32.0% (95% CI 26.8-37.3%)]. In adjusted analyses, treatment with DOACs, when compared with VKAs, was not associated with a significantly different rate of arterial thromboembolism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.23 (95% CI 0.58-2.59)], bleeding [HR 1.14 (95% CI 0.63-2.06)], or all-cause mortality [HR 0.93 (95% CI 0.61-1.40)].

CONCLUSION: In patients with AF undergoing TAVI, treatment with DOACs was not associated with a significantly different risk of arterial thromboembolism, bleeding, or all-cause mortality compared with VKA.

TidsskriftEuropean heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)11-19
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - 16 jan. 2021

ID: 58248178