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Testing Denmark: a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19

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Harvard

Fogh, K, Strange, JE, Scharff, BFSS, Eriksen, ARR, Hasselbalch, RB, Bundgaard, H, Nielsen, SD, Jørgensen, CS, Erikstrup, C, Norsk, J, Nielsen, PB, Kristensen, JH, Østergaard, L, Ellermann-Eriksen, S, Andersen, B, Nielsen, H, Johansen, IS, Wiese, L, Simonsen, L, Fischer, TK, Folke, F, Lippert, F, Ostrowski, SR, Benfield, T, Mølbak, K, Ethelberg, S, Koch, A, Sönksen, UW, Vangsted, A-M, Krause, TG, Fomsgaard, A, Ullum, H, Skov, R & Iversen, K 2021, 'Testing Denmark: a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19', Microbiology spectrum, bind 9, nr. 3, e01330, s. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21

APA

Fogh, K., Strange, J. E., Scharff, B. F. S. S., Eriksen, A. R. R., Hasselbalch, R. B., Bundgaard, H., Nielsen, S. D., Jørgensen, C. S., Erikstrup, C., Norsk, J., Nielsen, P. B., Kristensen, J. H., Østergaard, L., Ellermann-Eriksen, S., Andersen, B., Nielsen, H., Johansen, I. S., Wiese, L., Simonsen, L., ... Iversen, K. (2021). Testing Denmark: a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19. Microbiology spectrum, 9(3), 1-12. [e01330]. https://doi.org/10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21

CBE

Fogh K, Strange JE, Scharff BFSS, Eriksen ARR, Hasselbalch RB, Bundgaard H, Nielsen SD, Jørgensen CS, Erikstrup C, Norsk J, Nielsen PB, Kristensen JH, Østergaard L, Ellermann-Eriksen S, Andersen B, Nielsen H, Johansen IS, Wiese L, Simonsen L, Fischer TK, Folke F, Lippert F, Ostrowski SR, Benfield T, Mølbak K, Ethelberg S, Koch A, Sönksen UW, Vangsted A-M, Krause TG, Fomsgaard A, Ullum H, Skov R, Iversen K. 2021. Testing Denmark: a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19. Microbiology spectrum. 9(3):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Fogh, Kamille ; Strange, Jarl E ; Scharff, Bibi F S S ; Eriksen, Alexandra R R ; Hasselbalch, Rasmus B ; Bundgaard, Henning ; Nielsen, Susanne D ; Jørgensen, Charlotte S ; Erikstrup, Christian ; Norsk, Jakob ; Nielsen, Pernille Brok ; Kristensen, Jonas H ; Østergaard, Lars ; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend ; Andersen, Berit ; Nielsen, Henrik ; Johansen, Isik S ; Wiese, Lothar ; Simonsen, Lone ; Fischer, Thea K ; Folke, Fredrik ; Lippert, Freddy ; Ostrowski, Sisse R ; Benfield, Thomas ; Mølbak, Kåre ; Ethelberg, Steen ; Koch, Anders ; Sönksen, Ute Wolff ; Vangsted, Anne-Marie ; Krause, Tyra Grove ; Fomsgaard, Anders ; Ullum, Henrik ; Skov, Robert ; Iversen, Kasper. / Testing Denmark : a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19. I: Microbiology spectrum. 2021 ; Bind 9, Nr. 3. s. 1-12.

Bibtex

@article{97cfaaa5863f4e9599b3bdad8e1fd254,
title = "Testing Denmark: a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19",
abstract = "{"}Testing Denmark{"} is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.",
keywords = "Adult, Antibodies, Viral, COVID-19/diagnosis, Denmark, Female, Humans, Immunity, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Immunoglobulin M/blood, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Point-of-Care Testing, Population Surveillance, Prevalence, SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Surveys and Questionnaires",
author = "Kamille Fogh and Strange, {Jarl E} and Scharff, {Bibi F S S} and Eriksen, {Alexandra R R} and Hasselbalch, {Rasmus B} and Henning Bundgaard and Nielsen, {Susanne D} and J{\o}rgensen, {Charlotte S} and Christian Erikstrup and Jakob Norsk and Nielsen, {Pernille Brok} and Kristensen, {Jonas H} and Lars {\O}stergaard and Svend Ellermann-Eriksen and Berit Andersen and Henrik Nielsen and Johansen, {Isik S} and Lothar Wiese and Lone Simonsen and Fischer, {Thea K} and Fredrik Folke and Freddy Lippert and Ostrowski, {Sisse R} and Thomas Benfield and K{\aa}re M{\o}lbak and Steen Ethelberg and Anders Koch and S{\"o}nksen, {Ute Wolff} and Anne-Marie Vangsted and Krause, {Tyra Grove} and Anders Fomsgaard and Henrik Ullum and Robert Skov and Kasper Iversen",
year = "2021",
month = dec,
day = "22",
doi = "10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "1--12",
journal = "Microbiology spectrum",
issn = "2165-0497",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Testing Denmark

T2 - a Danish Nationwide Surveillance Study of COVID-19

AU - Fogh, Kamille

AU - Strange, Jarl E

AU - Scharff, Bibi F S S

AU - Eriksen, Alexandra R R

AU - Hasselbalch, Rasmus B

AU - Bundgaard, Henning

AU - Nielsen, Susanne D

AU - Jørgensen, Charlotte S

AU - Erikstrup, Christian

AU - Norsk, Jakob

AU - Nielsen, Pernille Brok

AU - Kristensen, Jonas H

AU - Østergaard, Lars

AU - Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

AU - Andersen, Berit

AU - Nielsen, Henrik

AU - Johansen, Isik S

AU - Wiese, Lothar

AU - Simonsen, Lone

AU - Fischer, Thea K

AU - Folke, Fredrik

AU - Lippert, Freddy

AU - Ostrowski, Sisse R

AU - Benfield, Thomas

AU - Mølbak, Kåre

AU - Ethelberg, Steen

AU - Koch, Anders

AU - Sönksen, Ute Wolff

AU - Vangsted, Anne-Marie

AU - Krause, Tyra Grove

AU - Fomsgaard, Anders

AU - Ullum, Henrik

AU - Skov, Robert

AU - Iversen, Kasper

PY - 2021/12/22

Y1 - 2021/12/22

N2 - "Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.

AB - "Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.

KW - Adult

KW - Antibodies, Viral

KW - COVID-19/diagnosis

KW - Denmark

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Immunity

KW - Immunoglobulin G/blood

KW - Immunoglobulin M/blood

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Odds Ratio

KW - Point-of-Care Testing

KW - Population Surveillance

KW - Prevalence

KW - SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification

KW - Seroepidemiologic Studies

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85122803517&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21

DO - 10.1128/SPECTRUM.01330-21

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 34908473

VL - 9

SP - 1

EP - 12

JO - Microbiology spectrum

JF - Microbiology spectrum

SN - 2165-0497

IS - 3

M1 - e01330

ER -

ID: 69835697