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Cryptorchidism, gonocyte development, and the risks of germ cell malignancy and infertility: A systematic review

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@article{9eef6c70d1614ea7b69111ef87458adf,
title = "Cryptorchidism, gonocyte development, and the risks of germ cell malignancy and infertility: A systematic review",
abstract = "BACKGROUND/AIM: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis (UDT) occurs in 1{\%}-4{\%} of newborn males and leads to a risk of infertility and testicular malignancy. Recent research suggests that infertility and malignancy in UDT may be caused by abnormal development of the neonatal germ cells, or gonocytes, which normally transform into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) or undergo apoptosis during minipuberty at 2-6 months in humans (2-6 days in mice). We aimed to identify the current knowledge on how UDT is linked to infertility and malignancy.METHODS: Here we review the literature from 1995 to the present to assess the possible causes of infertility and malignancy in UDT, from both human studies and animal models.RESULTS: Both the morphological steps and many of the genes involved in germ cell development are now characterized, but the factors involved in gonocyte transformation and apoptosis in both normal and cryptorchid testes are not fully identified. During minipuberty there is evidence for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis stimulating gonocyte transformation, but without known direct control by LH and androgen, although FSH may have a role. An arrested gonocyte maybe the origin of later malignancy at least in syndromic cryptorchid testes in humans, which is consistent with the recent finding that gonocytes are normally absent in a rodent model of congenital cryptorchidism, where malignancy has not been reported.CONCLUSION: The results of this review strengthen the view that malignancy and infertility in men with previous UDT may be caused by abnormalities in germ cell development during minipuberty.TYPE OF STUDY: Systematic review (secondary, filtered) LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.",
keywords = "Cryptorchidism, Germ cells, Gonocyte transformation, Spermatogonium, Undescended testis",
author = "Moshe Loebenstein and Jorgen Thorup and Dina Cortes and Erik Clasen-Linde and Hutson, {John M} and Ruili Li",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.06.023",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Pediatric Surgery",
issn = "0022-3468",
publisher = "W.B./Saunders Co",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cryptorchidism, gonocyte development, and the risks of germ cell malignancy and infertility

T2 - A systematic review

AU - Loebenstein, Moshe

AU - Thorup, Jorgen

AU - Cortes, Dina

AU - Clasen-Linde, Erik

AU - Hutson, John M

AU - Li, Ruili

N1 - Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/7/5

Y1 - 2019/7/5

N2 - BACKGROUND/AIM: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis (UDT) occurs in 1%-4% of newborn males and leads to a risk of infertility and testicular malignancy. Recent research suggests that infertility and malignancy in UDT may be caused by abnormal development of the neonatal germ cells, or gonocytes, which normally transform into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) or undergo apoptosis during minipuberty at 2-6 months in humans (2-6 days in mice). We aimed to identify the current knowledge on how UDT is linked to infertility and malignancy.METHODS: Here we review the literature from 1995 to the present to assess the possible causes of infertility and malignancy in UDT, from both human studies and animal models.RESULTS: Both the morphological steps and many of the genes involved in germ cell development are now characterized, but the factors involved in gonocyte transformation and apoptosis in both normal and cryptorchid testes are not fully identified. During minipuberty there is evidence for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis stimulating gonocyte transformation, but without known direct control by LH and androgen, although FSH may have a role. An arrested gonocyte maybe the origin of later malignancy at least in syndromic cryptorchid testes in humans, which is consistent with the recent finding that gonocytes are normally absent in a rodent model of congenital cryptorchidism, where malignancy has not been reported.CONCLUSION: The results of this review strengthen the view that malignancy and infertility in men with previous UDT may be caused by abnormalities in germ cell development during minipuberty.TYPE OF STUDY: Systematic review (secondary, filtered) LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.

AB - BACKGROUND/AIM: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testis (UDT) occurs in 1%-4% of newborn males and leads to a risk of infertility and testicular malignancy. Recent research suggests that infertility and malignancy in UDT may be caused by abnormal development of the neonatal germ cells, or gonocytes, which normally transform into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) or undergo apoptosis during minipuberty at 2-6 months in humans (2-6 days in mice). We aimed to identify the current knowledge on how UDT is linked to infertility and malignancy.METHODS: Here we review the literature from 1995 to the present to assess the possible causes of infertility and malignancy in UDT, from both human studies and animal models.RESULTS: Both the morphological steps and many of the genes involved in germ cell development are now characterized, but the factors involved in gonocyte transformation and apoptosis in both normal and cryptorchid testes are not fully identified. During minipuberty there is evidence for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis stimulating gonocyte transformation, but without known direct control by LH and androgen, although FSH may have a role. An arrested gonocyte maybe the origin of later malignancy at least in syndromic cryptorchid testes in humans, which is consistent with the recent finding that gonocytes are normally absent in a rodent model of congenital cryptorchidism, where malignancy has not been reported.CONCLUSION: The results of this review strengthen the view that malignancy and infertility in men with previous UDT may be caused by abnormalities in germ cell development during minipuberty.TYPE OF STUDY: Systematic review (secondary, filtered) LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.

KW - Cryptorchidism

KW - Germ cells

KW - Gonocyte transformation

KW - Spermatogonium

KW - Undescended testis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069204400&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.06.023

DO - 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.06.023

M3 - Review

JO - Journal of Pediatric Surgery

JF - Journal of Pediatric Surgery

SN - 0022-3468

ER -

ID: 57711949