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Characterization of Human Adrenal Steroidogenesis during Fetal Development

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@article{569a5a11957d48b49affd76bed2310a2,
title = "Characterization of Human Adrenal Steroidogenesis during Fetal Development",
abstract = "CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P < 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed in a distinct pattern throughout the investigated period, with most enzymes expressed primarily in the fetal zone, except 3β-HSD1/2, which was expressed mainly in the definitive zone. Abundant steroidogenic enzyme expression was reflected in overall high intra-adrenal tissue concentrations of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens; cortisol was the most abundant (1071 to 2723 ng/g tissue), and testosterone levels were the lowest (2 to 14 ng/g tissue).CONCLUSIONS: The expression profiles of HFA steroidogenic enzymes are distinct from first to second trimester, with no major differences between male and female samples. Intra-adrenal steroid hormone concentrations confirm that cortisol is produced throughout first and second trimesters, suggesting continued regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during this entire period.",
author = "Cecilie Melau and Nielsen, {John Erik} and Hanne Frederiksen and Karen Kilcoyne and Signe Perlman and Lene Lundvall and Thuesen, {Lea Langhoff} and {Juul Hare}, Kristine and Anna-Maria Andersson and Mitchell, {Rod T} and Anders Juul and Anne J{\o}rgensen",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 Endocrine Society.",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1210/jc.2018-01759",
language = "English",
volume = "104",
pages = "1802--1812",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism",
issn = "0021-972X",
publisher = "The/Endocrine Society",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of Human Adrenal Steroidogenesis during Fetal Development

AU - Melau, Cecilie

AU - Nielsen, John Erik

AU - Frederiksen, Hanne

AU - Kilcoyne, Karen

AU - Perlman, Signe

AU - Lundvall, Lene

AU - Thuesen, Lea Langhoff

AU - Juul Hare, Kristine

AU - Andersson, Anna-Maria

AU - Mitchell, Rod T

AU - Juul, Anders

AU - Jørgensen, Anne

N1 - Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P < 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed in a distinct pattern throughout the investigated period, with most enzymes expressed primarily in the fetal zone, except 3β-HSD1/2, which was expressed mainly in the definitive zone. Abundant steroidogenic enzyme expression was reflected in overall high intra-adrenal tissue concentrations of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens; cortisol was the most abundant (1071 to 2723 ng/g tissue), and testosterone levels were the lowest (2 to 14 ng/g tissue).CONCLUSIONS: The expression profiles of HFA steroidogenic enzymes are distinct from first to second trimester, with no major differences between male and female samples. Intra-adrenal steroid hormone concentrations confirm that cortisol is produced throughout first and second trimesters, suggesting continued regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during this entire period.

AB - CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P < 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed in a distinct pattern throughout the investigated period, with most enzymes expressed primarily in the fetal zone, except 3β-HSD1/2, which was expressed mainly in the definitive zone. Abundant steroidogenic enzyme expression was reflected in overall high intra-adrenal tissue concentrations of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens; cortisol was the most abundant (1071 to 2723 ng/g tissue), and testosterone levels were the lowest (2 to 14 ng/g tissue).CONCLUSIONS: The expression profiles of HFA steroidogenic enzymes are distinct from first to second trimester, with no major differences between male and female samples. Intra-adrenal steroid hormone concentrations confirm that cortisol is produced throughout first and second trimesters, suggesting continued regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during this entire period.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068537775&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1210/jc.2018-01759

DO - 10.1210/jc.2018-01759

M3 - Journal article

VL - 104

SP - 1802

EP - 1812

JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

SN - 0021-972X

IS - 5

ER -

ID: 56054571