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Breastfeeding at night is rarely followed by hypoglycaemia in women with type 1 diabetes using carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin therapy

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@article{c1ad1b8dc32a4328a4a55c6019da348c,
title = "Breastfeeding at night is rarely followed by hypoglycaemia in women with type 1 diabetes using carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin therapy",
abstract = "AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hypoglycaemia in association with breastfeeding is a feared condition in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Thus, routine carbohydrate intake at each breastfeed, particularly at night, is often recommended despite lack of evidence. We aimed to evaluate glucose levels during breastfeeding, focusing on whether night-time breastfeeding induced hypoglycaemia in mothers with type 1 diabetes.METHODS: Of 43 consecutive mothers with type 1 diabetes, 33 (77{\%}) were included prospectively 1 month after a singleton delivery. Twenty-six mothers (mean [SD] age 30.7 [5.8] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 18.6 [10.3] years) were breastfeeding and seven mothers (mean [SD] age 31.7 [5.6] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 20.4 [6.2] years) were bottle-feeding their infants with formula. All were experienced in carbohydrate counting using individually tailored insulin therapy with insulin analogues (45{\%} on insulin pump, 55{\%} on multiple daily injections). Thirty-two women with type 1 diabetes, matched for age ±1 year and BMI ±1 kg/m2, who had not given birth or breastfed in the previous year, served as a control group. Blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 6 days was applied at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in the breastfeeding mothers who recorded breastfeeds and carbohydrate intake at each CGM period. CGM was applied at 1 month postpartum in the formula-feeding mothers and once in the control women. The insulin dose was individually tailored after each CGM period.RESULTS: The percentage of night-time spent with CGM <4.0 mmol/l was low (4.6{\%}, 3.1{\%} and 2.7{\%} at each CGM period in the breastfeeding mothers vs 1.6{\%} in the control women, p = 0.77), and the breastfeeding mothers spent a greater proportion of the night-time in the target range of 4.0-10.0 mmol/l (p = 0.01). Symptomatic hypoglycaemia occurred two or three times per week at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in both breastfeeding mothers and the control women. Severe hypoglycaemia was reported by one mother (3{\%}) during the 6 month postpartum period and by one control woman (3{\%}) in the previous year (p = 0.74). In breastfeeding mothers at 1 month, the insulin dose was 18{\%} (-67{\%} to +48{\%}) lower than before pregnancy (p = 0.04). In total, carbohydrate was not consumed in relation to 438 recorded night-time breastfeeds, and CGM <4.0 mmol/l within 3 h occurred after 20 (4.6{\%}) of these breastfeeds.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The percentage of night-time spent in hypoglycaemia was low in the breastfeeding mothers with type 1 diabetes and was similar in the control women. Breastfeeding at night-time rarely induced hypoglycaemia. The historical recommendation of routine carbohydrate intake at night-time breastfeeding may be obsolete in mothers with type 1 diabetes who have properly reduced insulin dose with sufficient carbohydrate intake.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02898428.",
keywords = "Breastfeeding, Carbohydrate counting, Continuous glucose monitoring, Gestational weight gain retention, Hypoglycaemia, Insulin dose, Insulin pump therapy, Type 1 diabetes",
author = "Lene Ringholm and Roskj{\ae}r, {Ann B} and Susanne Engberg and Andersen, {Henrik U} and Secher, {Anna L} and Peter Damm and Mathiesen, {Elisabeth R}",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s00125-018-4794-9",
language = "English",
volume = "62",
pages = "387--398",
journal = "Diabetologia",
issn = "0012-186X",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Breastfeeding at night is rarely followed by hypoglycaemia in women with type 1 diabetes using carbohydrate counting and flexible insulin therapy

AU - Ringholm, Lene

AU - Roskjær, Ann B

AU - Engberg, Susanne

AU - Andersen, Henrik U

AU - Secher, Anna L

AU - Damm, Peter

AU - Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hypoglycaemia in association with breastfeeding is a feared condition in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Thus, routine carbohydrate intake at each breastfeed, particularly at night, is often recommended despite lack of evidence. We aimed to evaluate glucose levels during breastfeeding, focusing on whether night-time breastfeeding induced hypoglycaemia in mothers with type 1 diabetes.METHODS: Of 43 consecutive mothers with type 1 diabetes, 33 (77%) were included prospectively 1 month after a singleton delivery. Twenty-six mothers (mean [SD] age 30.7 [5.8] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 18.6 [10.3] years) were breastfeeding and seven mothers (mean [SD] age 31.7 [5.6] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 20.4 [6.2] years) were bottle-feeding their infants with formula. All were experienced in carbohydrate counting using individually tailored insulin therapy with insulin analogues (45% on insulin pump, 55% on multiple daily injections). Thirty-two women with type 1 diabetes, matched for age ±1 year and BMI ±1 kg/m2, who had not given birth or breastfed in the previous year, served as a control group. Blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 6 days was applied at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in the breastfeeding mothers who recorded breastfeeds and carbohydrate intake at each CGM period. CGM was applied at 1 month postpartum in the formula-feeding mothers and once in the control women. The insulin dose was individually tailored after each CGM period.RESULTS: The percentage of night-time spent with CGM <4.0 mmol/l was low (4.6%, 3.1% and 2.7% at each CGM period in the breastfeeding mothers vs 1.6% in the control women, p = 0.77), and the breastfeeding mothers spent a greater proportion of the night-time in the target range of 4.0-10.0 mmol/l (p = 0.01). Symptomatic hypoglycaemia occurred two or three times per week at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in both breastfeeding mothers and the control women. Severe hypoglycaemia was reported by one mother (3%) during the 6 month postpartum period and by one control woman (3%) in the previous year (p = 0.74). In breastfeeding mothers at 1 month, the insulin dose was 18% (-67% to +48%) lower than before pregnancy (p = 0.04). In total, carbohydrate was not consumed in relation to 438 recorded night-time breastfeeds, and CGM <4.0 mmol/l within 3 h occurred after 20 (4.6%) of these breastfeeds.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The percentage of night-time spent in hypoglycaemia was low in the breastfeeding mothers with type 1 diabetes and was similar in the control women. Breastfeeding at night-time rarely induced hypoglycaemia. The historical recommendation of routine carbohydrate intake at night-time breastfeeding may be obsolete in mothers with type 1 diabetes who have properly reduced insulin dose with sufficient carbohydrate intake.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02898428.

AB - AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hypoglycaemia in association with breastfeeding is a feared condition in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Thus, routine carbohydrate intake at each breastfeed, particularly at night, is often recommended despite lack of evidence. We aimed to evaluate glucose levels during breastfeeding, focusing on whether night-time breastfeeding induced hypoglycaemia in mothers with type 1 diabetes.METHODS: Of 43 consecutive mothers with type 1 diabetes, 33 (77%) were included prospectively 1 month after a singleton delivery. Twenty-six mothers (mean [SD] age 30.7 [5.8] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 18.6 [10.3] years) were breastfeeding and seven mothers (mean [SD] age 31.7 [5.6] years, mean [SD] duration of diabetes 20.4 [6.2] years) were bottle-feeding their infants with formula. All were experienced in carbohydrate counting using individually tailored insulin therapy with insulin analogues (45% on insulin pump, 55% on multiple daily injections). Thirty-two women with type 1 diabetes, matched for age ±1 year and BMI ±1 kg/m2, who had not given birth or breastfed in the previous year, served as a control group. Blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 6 days was applied at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in the breastfeeding mothers who recorded breastfeeds and carbohydrate intake at each CGM period. CGM was applied at 1 month postpartum in the formula-feeding mothers and once in the control women. The insulin dose was individually tailored after each CGM period.RESULTS: The percentage of night-time spent with CGM <4.0 mmol/l was low (4.6%, 3.1% and 2.7% at each CGM period in the breastfeeding mothers vs 1.6% in the control women, p = 0.77), and the breastfeeding mothers spent a greater proportion of the night-time in the target range of 4.0-10.0 mmol/l (p = 0.01). Symptomatic hypoglycaemia occurred two or three times per week at 1, 2 and 6 months postpartum in both breastfeeding mothers and the control women. Severe hypoglycaemia was reported by one mother (3%) during the 6 month postpartum period and by one control woman (3%) in the previous year (p = 0.74). In breastfeeding mothers at 1 month, the insulin dose was 18% (-67% to +48%) lower than before pregnancy (p = 0.04). In total, carbohydrate was not consumed in relation to 438 recorded night-time breastfeeds, and CGM <4.0 mmol/l within 3 h occurred after 20 (4.6%) of these breastfeeds.CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The percentage of night-time spent in hypoglycaemia was low in the breastfeeding mothers with type 1 diabetes and was similar in the control women. Breastfeeding at night-time rarely induced hypoglycaemia. The historical recommendation of routine carbohydrate intake at night-time breastfeeding may be obsolete in mothers with type 1 diabetes who have properly reduced insulin dose with sufficient carbohydrate intake.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02898428.

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - Carbohydrate counting

KW - Continuous glucose monitoring

KW - Gestational weight gain retention

KW - Hypoglycaemia

KW - Insulin dose

KW - Insulin pump therapy

KW - Type 1 diabetes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85059590704&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00125-018-4794-9

DO - 10.1007/s00125-018-4794-9

M3 - Journal article

VL - 62

SP - 387

EP - 398

JO - Diabetologia

JF - Diabetologia

SN - 0012-186X

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 56144274