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Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) PET/MRI of Prostate Cancer for Noninvasive Evaluation of Aggressiveness: Comparison with Gleason Score in a Prospective Phase 2 Clinical Trial

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between uptake of the PET ligand 68Ga-NOTA-AE105, targeting the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), and Gleason score in patients undergoing prostate biopsy. Methods: Patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) or previously diagnosed with PCa were prospectively enrolled in this phase 2 trial. A combination of uPAR PET and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was performed, and the SUV in the primary tumor, as delineated by mpMRI, was measured by 2 independent readers. The correlation between the SUV and the Gleason score obtained by biopsy was assessed. Results: A total of 27 patients had histologically verified PCa visible on mpMRI and constituted the study population. There was a positive correlation between the SUV max and the Gleason score (Spearman ρ = 0.55; P = 0.003). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.67-1.00) for discriminating a Gleason score of greater than or equal to 3 + 4 from a Gleason score of less than or equal to 3 + 3. A cutoff for the tumor SUV max could be established with a sensitivity of 96% (79%-99%) and a specificity of 75% (30%-95%) for detecting a Gleason score of greater than or equal to 3 + 4. For discriminating a Gleason score of greater than or equal to 4 + 3 from a Gleason score of less than or equal to 3 + 4, a cutoff could be established for detecting a Gleason score of greater than or equal to 4 + 3 with a sensitivity of 93% (69%-99%) and a specificity of 62% (36%-82%). Conclusion: SUV measurements from uPAR PET in primary tumors, as delineated by mpMRI, showed a significant correlation with the Gleason score, and the tumor SUV max was able to discriminate between low-risk Gleason score profiles and intermediate risk Gleason score profiles with a high diagnostic accuracy. Consequently, uPAR PET/MRI could be a promising method for the noninvasive evaluation of PCa and might reduce the need for repeated biopsies (e.g., in active surveillance).

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Volume62
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)354-359
Number of pages6
ISSN0161-5505
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

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© 2021 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

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