Objective: An investigation to determine any consensus in opinions and views in the literature about challenges or barriers in training leadership for emergencies.
Summary of background data: Leadership in emergencies is reported as being very important for patient outcome. A systematic review failed in 2016 to find any focused leadership training. In the literature, the research has described and focused on developing tools to evaluate leadership.
Method: Articles identified in the systematic review combined with other reviews and opinions were included to incorporate experiences, perceptions and emotions connected with leadership training in emergency situations. Two qualitative content analyses were conducted. The first analysis searched for opinions about leadership and leadership training in emergencies. The method was abductive - inductive qualitative content analysis. The second analysis searched, on the basis of an article written in 1986, statements about challenges regarding leadership training in all articles. This method was directed qualitative content analysis.
Findings: In total 40 articles covering the years 1986-2016 were analysed. An explicit need for workable leadership training of team leaders in emergencies was identified. The importance of the teamleader in emergencies was repeatedly stressed by 31/40 articles, leadership training is needed or required was stated by 30/40 articles, 27/40 articles described the emergency situation as stressful, complex, chaotic or unpredictable, 17/40 described the importance of self-confidence by the teamleader, and 8/40 described that the situation was perceived as creating concern, anxiety or panic.
Conclusions: The literature recommends finding a solution to teach residents to gain courage and confidence in stressful surroundings. The literature recommends finding a way to work with body language, non-verbal communication, attitude and appearance in order to radiate credibility in a setting separated from medical knowledge.