Tolerance and resistance of microbial biofilms

Oana Ciofu, Claus Moser, Peter Østrup Jensen, Niels Høiby

71 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic infections caused by microbial biofilms represent an important clinical challenge. The recalcitrance of microbial biofilms to antimicrobials and to the immune system is a major cause of persistence and clinical recurrence of these infections. In this Review, we present the extent of the clinical problem, and the mechanisms underlying the tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics and to host responses. We also explore the role of biofilms in the development of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Reviews. Microbiology
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)621-635
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Biofilms
  • Drug Tolerance
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests


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