The role of sex on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: The SWEET international database

Marco Marigliano, Stefanie Lanzinger, Imane Zineb, Consuelo Barcala, Amy S Shah, Jannet Svensson, Kaloyan Tsochev, Artur Mazur, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Sorin Ioacara, Kesavadev Jothydev, Claudio Maffeis

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the International SWEET registry and the possible role of clinical variables in modifying the risk of having single or multiple CVRFs.

STUDY DESIGN: The study is a cross-sectional study. Cut-off points for CVRFs were fixed according to International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) guidelines and WHO parameters: LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) > 100 mg/dL; Systolic Blood Pressure (BP-SDS) > 90th percentile for sex, age, and height; BMI-SDS > 2SD for sex and age. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate variables associated with at least 1 or 2 CVRFs among registry children and adolescents.

RESULTS: 29,649 individuals with T1D (6-18 years, T1D ≥ 2 years) participating in the SWEET prospective multicenter diabetes registry were included. In the cohort, 41 % had one or more CVRFs, and 10 % had two or more CVRFs. Thirty-five percent of enrolled individuals had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, 26 % had BMI-SDS > 2SD, and 17 % had Systolic BP-SDS > 90th percentile. Females had higher frequency than males of having 1 or 2 CVRFs (45.1 % vs 37.4 %, 11.8 % vs 7.8 %; p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression models showed that sex (female), HbA1c category (>7.0 %), and age (>10 years) were associated with a higher chance of having at least 1 or 2 CVRFs (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents with T1D, female sex, in addition to HbA1c above 7 %, and older age (>10 years) was associated with a higher risk of having at least a CVRF (LDL-C, BMI-SDS, BP) according to internationally defined cut-offs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111616
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume210
Pages (from-to)111616
ISSN0168-8227
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Mar 2024

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