PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing need for improved risk stratification to better individualize cardiovascular preventive measures. Although age and sex are strong and easily obtained cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), their influence on the prognostic importance of other CVRF, circulating biomarkers and other markers of subclinical cardiovascular damage has not previously been systematically and critically appraised. Therefore, we have revisited the European MORGAM and the Danish MONI10 cohorts.
RECENT FINDINGS: Theoretically, the relative risk of many CVRF is expected to be lower in older healthy individuals due to a combination of selection bias by disease, higher absolute risk primarily due to older age, and the fact that the CVRF and markers may primarily influence or reflect early parts of the cardiovascular disease process. This influence of age may vary between sexes, as the cardiovascular disease process is delayed and possibly different in women compared with men.
SUMMARY: Adjusted for the remaining Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) CVRF, higher SBP, serum cholesterol, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, left ventricular mass index and atherosclerotic plaques were more closely associated with outcomes in individuals younger than 52 years with some sex-specific differences, whereas higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and urine albumin/creatine ratio were more closely associated with outcomes in subjects aged 61 or 71 years.
- Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis
- Risk Factors
- Heart Disease Risk Factors