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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on People with Diabetes and Diabetes Services: A pan-European Survey of Diabetes Specialist Nurses undertaken by the Foundation of European Nurses in Diabetes survey consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


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  • Rita Forde
  • Liga Arente
  • Davide Ausili
  • Kristin De Backer
  • Mette Due-Christensen
  • Amanda Epps
  • Anne Fitzpatrick
  • Moira Grixti
  • Sijda Groen
  • Arja Halkoaho
  • Claudia Huber
  • Marjolein M Iversen
  • Unn-Britt Johansson
  • Claudia Leippert
  • Seyda Ozcan
  • Julie Parker
  • Ana Christina Paiva
  • Adina Sanpetreanu
  • Marie-Alice Savet
  • Svetic-Cisic Rosana
  • Alicja Szewczyk
  • Maite Valverde
  • Eugenia Vlachou
  • Angus Forbes
  • FEND COVID-19 consortium
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AIM: To describe diabetes nurses' perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with diabetes and diabetes services across Europe.

METHODS: An online survey developed using a rapid Delphi method. The survey was translated into 17 different languages and disseminated electronically in 27 countries via national diabetes nurse networks.

RESULTS: Survey responses from 1829 diabetes nurses were included in the analysis. The responses indicated that 28% (n=504) and 48% (n=873) of diabetes nurses felt the COVID-19 pandemic had impacted 'a lot' on the physical and psychological risks of people with diabetes, respectively. The following clinical problems were identified as having increased 'a lot': anxiety 82% (n=1486); diabetes distress 65% (n=1189); depression 49% (n= 893); acute hyperglycaemia 39% (n=710); and foot complications 17% (n=323). Forty-seven percent (n=771) of respondents identified that the level of care provided to people with diabetes had declined either extremely or quite severely. Self-management support, diabetes education and psychological support were rated by diabetes nurse respondents as having declined extremely or quite severely during the COVID-19 pandemic by 31% (n=499), 63% (n=1,027) and 34% (n=551), respectively.

CONCLUSION: The findings show that diabetes nurses across Europe have seen significant increases in both physical and psychological problems in their patient populations during COVID-19. The data also show that clinical diabetes services have been significantly disrupted. As the COVID-19 situation continues we need to adapt care systems with some urgency to minimise the impact of the pandemic on the diabetes population.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14498
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)e14498
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Diabetes UK

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • COVID-19, diabetes care provision, physical and psychological health, 19, COVID&#8208

ID: 61558360