The Impact of Periodontitis on Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity

Gorm Roager Madsen, Kristina Bertl, Nikolaos Pandis, Andreas Stavropoulos, Johan Burisch

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontitis are chronic, progressive, inflammatory diseases with similarly complex pathogeneses that involve an interplay between dysbiotic microbiota and dysregulated immune-inflammatory responses. However, whether the presence of periodontitis is associated with IBD activity and/or its severity remains unknown.

METHODS: An online, questionnaire-based study was answered by 1093 patients with IBD, comprising 527 patients with Crohn's disease and 566 patients with ulcerative colitis. The survey included questions on social demographics; oral health, including the Periodontal Screening Score (PESS); and IBD-related characteristics, including validated disease indices.

RESULTS: Irrespective of disease subtype, patients with a reduced number of teeth and those with self-reported severe periodontitis scored significantly higher on the IBD disability index (number of teeth: coefficient, 4.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.21-8.66; P = .010]; periodontitis: coefficient, 3.54 [95% CI, 0.27-6.80; P = .034]) and reported increased disease activity in the preceding 12 months (number of teeth: odds ratio [OR], 1.91 [95% CI, 1.36-2.69; P < .001]; periodontitis: OR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.27-2.31; P < .001]). There was also evidence of a weak association between self-reported severe periodontitis and current disease activity (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.95-1.86; P = .099). However, IBD severity, as a composite parameter of a history of surgery due to IBD and/or treatment with biological therapy, was not associated with possessing a reduced number of teeth (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.77-1.80; P = .451), nor with self-reported severe periodontitis (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.79-1.66; P = .467).

CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis and tooth loss were significantly associated with increased IBD-related disability and more disease activity in the preceding 12 months. Our results suggest that greater attention should be paid to IBD patients' oral health.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberizac090
JournalInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Volume29
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)396-404
Number of pages9
ISSN1078-0998
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • IBD
  • disease activity
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications
  • Humans
  • Crohn Disease/complications
  • Oral Health
  • Periodontitis/complications
  • Colitis, Ulcerative/complications

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