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The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

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OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is thought to intensify the physiological effects of the incretin hormones. We investigated the effects of DPP4 inhibition on plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), incretin effect, glucose tolerance, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

DESIGN: A randomised, controlled and open-labelled study.

METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (six women; age, 40±5 years (mean±s.e.m.); BMI, 24±3 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose, 5.1±0.2 mmol/l and HbA1c, 34±1 mmol/mol (5.3±0.1%)) were randomised to two-paired study days comprising a 4-h 50 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with paracetamol (A) and an isoglycaemic intravenous (i.v.) glucose infusion (B), with (A1+B1) and without (A2+B2) preceding administration of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin.

RESULTS: Isoglycaemia was obtained in all subjects on the paired study days. Significant increases in fasting levels and OGTT-induced responses of active GLP1 and GIP were seen after DPP4 inhibition. No significant impact of DPP4 inhibition on fasting plasma glucose (5.1±0.1 vs 4.9±0.1 mmol/l, P=0.3), glucose tolerance (area under the curve (AUC) for plasma glucose, 151±35 vs 137±26 mmol/l×min, P=0.7) or peak plasma glucose during OGTT (8.5±0.4 vs 8.1±0.3 mmol/l, P=0.3) was observed. Neither incretin effect (40±9% (without DPP4 inhibitor) vs 40±7% (with DPP4 inhibitor), P=1.0), glucagon responses (1395±165 vs 1223±195 pmol/l×min, P=0.41), GIGD (52±4 vs 56±5%, P=0.40) nor gastric emptying (Tmax for plasma paracetamol: 86±9 vs 80±12 min, P=0.60) changed following DPP4 inhibition.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that acute increases in active incretin hormone levels do not affect glucose tolerance, GIGD, incretin effect, glucagon responses or gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies
Volume171
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)353-62
Number of pages10
ISSN0804-4643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014

ID: 44439395