The Impact of Dietary Factors during Pregnancy on the Development of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review

Valdemar Brimnes Ingemann Johansen*, Knud Josefsen, Julie Christine Antvorskov

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children is considerably increasing in western countries. Thus, identification of the environmental determinants involved could ultimately lead to disease prevention. Here, we aimed to systematically review (PROSPERO ID: CRD42022362522) the current evidence of the association between maternal dietary factors during gestation and the risk of developing type 1 diabetes and/or islet autoimmunity (IA) in murine and human offspring.

METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, the present systematic review searched PubMed and Scopus (n = 343) for different combinations of MeSH terms, such as type 1 diabetes, diet, islet autoimmunity, prenatal, nutrient, gluten, gliadin, vitamin, milk, and fibers.

RESULTS: We found that the most investigated dietary factors in the present literature were gluten, dietary advanced glycosylated end products (dAGEs), vitamin D, fatty acids, and iron. The results concerning prenatal exposure to a gluten-free environment showed a consistently protective effect on the development of IA. Prenatal exposures to vitamin D and certain fatty acids appeared to protect against the development of IA, whereas in utero iron and fat exposures correlated with increased risks of IA.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that a definite association is not established for most factors investigated as the literature represents a heterogeneous pool of data, although fetal exposures to some maternal dietary components, such as gluten, show consistent associations with increased risks of IA. We suggest that human prospective dietary intervention studies in both cohort and clinical settings are crucial to better evaluate critical and protective prenatal exposures from the maternal diet during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4333
JournalNutrients
Volume15
Issue number20
ISSN2072-6643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2023

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The Impact of Dietary Factors during Pregnancy on the Development of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this