The Immunogenicity of Capsid-Like Particle Vaccines in Combination with Different Adjuvants Using Different Routes of Administration

Christoph M Janitzek, Philip H R Carlsen, Susan Thrane, Vijansh M Khanna, Virginie Jakob, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Nicolas Collin, Thor G Theander, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Adam F Sander

2 Citations (Scopus)


Capsid-like particle (CLP) displays can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens, but a better understanding of how CLP vaccines are best formulated and delivered is needed. This study compared the humoral immune responses in mice elicited against two different vaccine antigens (a bacterial protein and a viral peptide) delivered on an AP205 CLP platform using six different adjuvant formulations. In comparison to antibody responses obtained after immunization with the unadjuvanted CLP vaccine, three of the adjuvant systems (neutral liposomes/monophosphoryl lipid A/quillaja saponaria 21, squalene-in-water emulsion, and monophosphoryl lipid A) caused significantly increased antibody levels, whereas formulation with the three other adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide, cationic liposomes, and cationic microparticles) resulted in similar or even decreased antibody responses. When delivering the soluble bacterial protein in a squalene-in-water emulsion, 4-log lower IgG levels were obtained compared to when the protein was delivered on CLPs without the adjuvant. The AP205 CLP platform promoted induction of both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, which could be skewed towards a higher production of IgG1 (aluminum hydroxide). Compared to other routes, intramuscular administration elicited the highest IgG levels. These results indicate that the effect of the external adjuvant does not always synergize with the adjuvant effect of the CLP display, which underscores the need for empirical testing of different extrinsic adjuvants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131
Issue number2
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2021


  • Adjuvants
  • AP205
  • Capsid-like particle
  • Route of immunization
  • Vaccine
  • Virus-like particle


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