The Effects of Two Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Intake of Salt and the Sodium-To-Potassium Ratio on Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A 4-Month Randomised Controlled Study among Healthy Families

Ulla Toft, Nanna Louise Riis, Anne Dahl Lassen, Ellen Trolle, Anne Helms Andreasen, Amalie Kruse Sigersted Frederiksen, Niklas Rye Joergensen, Jens Kristian Munk, Kirsten Schroll Bjoernsbo

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim was to examine the effects of two different salt reduction strategies on selected cardiovascular risk factors. The study was a four-month cluster randomised controlled study. Eighty-nine healthy Danish families (309 individuals) were randomly assigned to either (A) gradually salt-reduced bread, (B) gradually salt-reduced bread and dietary counselling to further reduce salt intake and increase potassium intake or (C) standard bread (control). The effect was assessed using linear mixed models. Intention to treat analyses comparing changes in the three groups showed a significant reduction in body fat percent (-1.31% (-2.40; -0.23)) and a borderline significant reduction in total plasma cholesterol (-0.25 mmol/L (-0.51; 0.01) and plasma renin (-0.19 pmol/L (-0.39; 0.00) in group A compared to the control group. Adjusted complete case analyses showed a significant reduction in total plasma cholesterol (-0.29 mmol/L (-0.50; -0.08), plasma LDL cholesterol (-0.08 mmol/L (-0.15; -0.00)), plasma renin (-0.23 pmol/L (-0.41; -0.05)), plasma adrenaline (-0.03 nmol/L (-0.06; -0.01)) and body fat percent (-1.53% (-2.51; -0.54)) in group A compared to the control group. No significant changes were found in group B compared to the control group. In conclusion, receiving sodium reduce bread was associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular risk factors. No adverse effects were observed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberE1467
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number5
ISSN2072-6643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2020

Keywords

  • Bread reformulation
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Families
  • Potassium
  • Real life clinical trial
  • Salt reduction

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