The effect of weight loss on whole-body and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid content and composition: SWEET substudy

Michelle D Pang, Jacco J A J Bastings, Yvonne M H Op den Kamp-Bruls, Joanne A Harrold, Louise Kjølbaek, Jason C G Halford, Tanja C M Adam, Anne Raben, Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak

Abstract

Objective: This study (1) investigated the effect of weight loss on whole-body and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity and on intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and composition and (2) investigated the association between weight-loss-induced changes in insulin sensitivity and IHL content in individuals with overweight or obesity. Methods: In this secondary analysis of the European SWEET project, 50 adults (age 18–65 years) with overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2) followed a low-energy diet (LED) for 2 months. At baseline and after the LED, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), IHL content and composition (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), whole-body insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), muscle insulin sensitivity index (MISI), and hepatic insulin resistance index (HIRI) were determined (7-point oral glucose tolerance test). Results: The LED reduced body weight (p < 0.001). This was accompanied by increased Matsuda index and reduced HIRI (both p < 0.001) but no change in MISI (p = 0.260). Weight loss decreased IHL content (mean [SEM], 3.9% [0.7%] vs. 1.6% [0.5%], p < 0.001) and the hepatic saturated fatty acid fraction (41.0% [1.5%] vs. 36.6% [1.9%], p = 0.039). The reduced IHL content was associated with an improvement in HIRI (r = 0.402, p = 0.025). Conclusions: Weight loss decreased IHL content and the hepatic saturated fatty acid fraction. The decrease in IHL content was associated with weight-loss-induced improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity in individuals with overweight or obesity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalObesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume31
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1745-1754
Number of pages10
ISSN1930-7381
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Adolescent
  • Young Adult
  • Middle Aged
  • Aged
  • Insulin Resistance/physiology
  • Overweight
  • Liver/diagnostic imaging
  • Obesity
  • Weight Loss
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Fatty Acids

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