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The Effect of Simulator-Integrated Tutoring for Guidance in Virtual Reality Simulation Training

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INTRODUCTION: Simulation-integrated tutoring in virtual reality (VR) simulation training by green lighting is a common learning support in simulation-based temporal bone surgical training. However, tutoring overreliance can negatively affect learning. We therefore wanted to investigate the effects of simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and learning.

METHODS: A prospective, educational cohort study of a learning intervention (simulator-integrated tutoring) during repeated and distributed VR simulation training for directed, self-regulated learning of the mastoidectomy procedure. Two cohorts of novices (medical students) were recruited: 16 participants were trained using the intervention program (intermittent simulator-integrated tutoring) and 14 participants constituted a nontutored reference cohort. Outcomes were final-product performance assessed by 2 blinded raters and simulator-recorded metrics.

RESULTS: Simulator-integrated tutoring had a large and positive effect on the final-product performance while turned on (mean difference = 3.8 points, P < 0.0001). However, this did not translate to a better final-product performance in subsequent nontutored procedures. The tutored cohort had a better metrics-based score, reflecting higher efficiency of drilling (mean difference = 3.6%, P = 0.001). For the individual metrics, simulator-integrated tutoring had mixed effects both during procedures and on the tutored cohort in general (learning effect).

CONCLUSIONS: Simulator-integrated tutoring by green lighting did not induce a better final-product performance but increased efficiency. The mixed effects on learning could be caused by tutoring overreliance, resulting from a lack of cognitive engagement when the tutor function is on. Further learning strategies such as feedback should be explored to support novice learning and cognitive engagement.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSimulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)147-153
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020

    Research areas

  • distributed practice, mastoidectomy, self-directed learning, simulation-based training, temporal bone surgery, tutoring, Virtual reality surgical simulation

ID: 60286394