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The effect of acute intragastric vs. intravenous alcohol administration on inflammation markers, blood lipids and gallbladder motility in healthy men

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Ethanol intake increases plasma concentrations of triglycerides and chronic ethanol use impairs lipid metabolism and causes chronic inflammation. The gut plays an important role in metabolic handling of nutrients, including lipids, and a leaky gut associated with alcohol intake, allowing inflammatory signals to the portal vein, has been proposed to constitute a mechanism by which ethanol induces hepatic inflammation. We compared the effects of enteral and parenteral administration of ethanol on a range of circulating inflammation markers (including soluble CD163, a marker of liver macrophage activation), lipids, cholecystokinin (CCK) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) as well as gallbladder volume. On two separate and randomized study days, we subjected healthy men (n = 12) to double-blinded intragastric ethanol infusion (IGEI) and isoethanolemic intravenous ethanol infusion (IVEI). Blood was sampled and ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder volume was performed at frequent intervals for 4 h after initiation of ethanol administration on both days. Little or no effects were observed on plasma levels of inflammation markers during IGEI and IVEI, respectively. Circulating levels of total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after ethanol administration independently of the administration form. Triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations increased more after IGEI compared to IVEI. IVEI had no effect on plasma CCK and caused an increased gallbladder volume whereas IGEI elicited a CCK response (P < 0.0001) without affecting gallbladder volume. Circulating FGF19 concentrations decreased equally in response to both ethanol administration forms. In conclusion, by evaluating a range of circulating inflammation markers during IGEI and IVEI we were not able to detect signs of systemic low-grade inflammation originating from the presence of ethanol in the gut. IVEI increased gallbladder volume whereas IGEI increased plasma CCK (with neutral effect on gallbladder volume), increased plasma VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations; indicating that the enteral route of administration may influence ethanol's effects on lipid metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAlcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
Volume87
Pages (from-to)29-37
Number of pages9
ISSN0741-8329
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 59749620