The effect of acute dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibition on incretin release and glucose metabolism after gastric bypass surgery

Christoffer Martinussen, Simon Veedfald, Carsten Dirksen, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria S Svane, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Gerrit van Hall, Viggo B Kristiansen, Mogens Fenger, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad

15 Citations (Scopus)


Enhanced meal-related enteroendocrine secretion, particularly of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), contributes to weightloss and improved glycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Dietary glucose drives GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion postoperatively. Understanding how glucose triggers incretin secretion following RYGB could lead to new treatments of diabetes and obesity. In vitro, incretin release depends on glucose absorption via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). We investigated the importance of SGLT1/SGLT2 for enteropancreatic hormone concentrations and glucose metabolism after RYGB in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Ten RYGB-operated patients ingested 50 g of oral glucose with and without acute pretreatment with 600 mg of the SGLT1/SGLT2-inhibitor canagliflozin. Paracetamol and 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose (3-OMG) were added to the glucose drink to evaluate rates of intestinal entry and absorption of glucose, respectively. Blood samples were collected for 4 h. The primary outcome was 4-h plasma GLP-1 (incremental area-under the curve, iAUC). Secondary outcomes included glucose, GIP, insulin, and glucagon. Canagliflozin delayed glucose absorption (time-to-peak 3-OMG: 50 vs. 132 min, P < 0.01) but did not reduce iAUC GLP-1 (6,067 vs. 7,273·min·pmol-1·L-1, P = 0.23), although peak GLP-1 concentrations were lowered (-28%, P = 0.03). Canagliflozin reduced GIP (iAUC -28%, P =0.01; peak concentrations -57%, P < 0.01), insulin, and glucose excursions, whereas plasma glucagon (AUC 3,216 vs. 4,160 min·pmol·L-1, P = 0.02) and amino acids were increased. In conclusion, acute SGLT1/SGLT2-inhibition during glucose ingestion did not reduce 4-h plasma GLP-1 responses in RYGBpatients but attenuated the early rise in GLP-1, GIP, and insulin, whereas late glucagon concentrations were increased. The results suggest that SGLT1-mediated glucose absorption contributes to incretin hormone secretion after RYGB.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)E956-E964
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • glucagon
  • incretins
  • obesity
  • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
  • sodium-glucose cotransporter
  • Incretins
  • Obesity
  • Glucagon
  • Sodium-glucose cotransporter
  • Gastric Bypass
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide/drug effects
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/antagonists & inhibitors
  • Incretins/metabolism
  • Canagliflozin/pharmacology
  • C-Peptide/drug effects
  • Insulin/metabolism
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/metabolism
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/drug effects
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glucagon/drug effects
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Blood Glucose/drug effects
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/drug effects


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