The association between Peyronie's disease and depression: a scoping review

Rune Kraglund, Emil Durukan, Annamaria Giraldi, Mikkel Fode*

*Corresponding author for this work


INTRODUCTION: Peyronie's disease (PD) can have an immense psychological impact, with depression being a reported possible, severe consequence. To date, no literature reviews have systematically and critically assessed the relationship between PD and depression.

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to identify and critically appraise the current literature on the association between PD and depression.

METHODS: Studies had to address men with PD or probable PD and assess depression or depressive symptoms. Quantitative and qualitative, peer-reviewed, primary, empirical studies written in English or Danish were included. According to the guidelines for scoping reviews and the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews) guideline, we performed a systematic review of PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Reference lists of included studies were screened for additional sources. Gray literature was searched for in Google Scholar and Bielefeld Academic Search Engine. Data were charted using a data extraction form, and critical appraisal was performed using the QuADS (quality assessment with diverse studies) tool.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included. Most studies had a cross-sectional design, and also cohort studies and longitudinal observational studies without a control group were found. Depression was assessed mainly by validated questionnaires or diagnostic codes. Questionnaire studies found a prevalences of moderate to severe depression of 24% to 48%, while studies using diagnostic codes found depression in 4% to 37% of men with PD. The quality of the included studies varied from 38% to 82% of the maximum possible score in the QuADS assessment.

CONCLUSION: While most studies describe an association between PD and depression, the evidence is not comprehensive. The current literature is especially at risk of selection bias and the influence of confounding factors, and a direct causality between PD and depression cannot be established. Future research calls for more methodically rigorous studies as well as qualitative studies to understand the relationship.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSexual Medicine Reviews
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)221-229
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Peyronie’s disease
  • depression
  • mental health
  • penile curvature
  • sexual dysfunction


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