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Targeting epicardial adipose tissue with exercise, diet, bariatric surgery or pharmaceutical interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) are metabolically active fat depots implicated in cardiovascular disease, and EAT has potential as a novel cardiac risk factor, suitable as a target for interventions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the evidence whether EAT and PAT volume can be reduced by weight-loss interventions (exercise, diet, bariatric surgery or pharmaceutical interventions). A systematic literature search identified 34 studies that were included in the qualitative synthesis (exercise, n = 10, diet, n = 5, bariatric surgery, n = 9 and pharmaceutical interventions, n = 10). Of the 34 studies, 10 reported sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was only conducted for changes in EAT volume, since only few controlled studies reported changes in PAT (n = 3) or total cardiac adipose tissue volume (n = 1). A significant pooled effect size (ES) for reduction in EAT volume was observed following weight-loss interventions as compared with control interventions (ES = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.23 to -0.55, P < 0.001). When comparing the effect of exercise training versus control on EAT volume reduction, there was a significant pooled ES favouring exercise training (ES: -1.11, 95% CI: -1.57 to -0.65, P < 0.001). Similarly, the ES of pharmaceutical versus control interventions on EAT volume reduction was significant, favouring pharmaceutical interventions (ES: -0.79, 95% CI: -1.37 to -0.21, P < 0.0072). In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that exercise, diet, bariatric surgery and pharmaceutical interventions can reduce cardiac adipose tissue volume.

Original languageEnglish
JournalObesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Volume22
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)e13136
ISSN1467-7881
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

ID: 61273581