Flexible bronchoscopy is a technically difficult procedure and has been identified as the most important procedure that should be integrated into a simulation-based training program for pulmonologists. However, more specific guidelines that govern bronchoscopy training are needed to meet this demand. To ensure patients a competent examination, we propose a systematic, stepwise approach, splitting the procedure into four "landmarks" to support novice endoscopists navigating the bronchial maze. The procedure can be evaluated based on three established outcome measures to ensure a thorough and effective inspection of the bronchial tree: diagnostic completeness, structured progress, and procedure time. The stepwise approach relying on the four landmarks is used at all simulation centers in Denmark and is being implemented in the Netherlands. To provide instant feedback to novice bronchoscopists when training and to relieve time constraints from consultants, we suggest that future studies should implement artificial intelligence as a feedback and certification tool when training new bronchoscopists.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere65358
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number196
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jun 2023


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