Struggling Can Also Show on the Inside: Current Knowledge of the Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Biomarkers in Mood Disorders

Abstract

The link between childhood maltreatment and mood disorders is complex and involves multiple bio-psycho-social factors that affect multiple molecular pathways. The present narrative review aims to clarify the current understanding of the impact of childhood maltreatment on biomarkers in patients with mood disorders and their first-degree relatives. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and hormones (eg the stress hormone cortisol), play a crucial role in regulating mood and emotion. Childhood maltreatment can alter and affect the levels and functioning of these neurotransmitters in the brain; further, childhood maltreatment can lead to structural and connectivity changes in the brain, hence contributing to the development of mood disorders and moderating illness presentation and modifying response to treatments. Childhood maltreatment information, therefore, appears mandatory in treatment planning and is a critical factor in therapeutic algorithms. Further research is needed to fully understand these pathways and develop new treatment modalities for individuals with mood disorders who have experienced childhood maltreatment and effective preventive interventions for individuals at risk of developing mood disorders.

Original languageEnglish
JournalStruggling Can Also Show on the Inside: Current Knowledge of the Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Biomarkers in Mood Disorders
Volume20
Pages (from-to)583-595
Number of pages13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • biosignatures
  • biotype
  • childhood maltreatment
  • mood disorders

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