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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
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Smallpox and BCG vaccination in childhood and cutaneous malignant melanoma in Danish adults followed from 18 to 49 years

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  1. Self-reported immunity and opinions on vaccination of hospital personnel among paediatric healthcare workers in Denmark

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  2. Are refugees arriving in Denmark an under-immunised group for measles? A cross-sectional serology study

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  3. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth and differential white blood cell count in infancy. A randomised clinical trial

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  4. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality after quadrivalent HPV vaccination during pregnancy

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  5. Therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccines in head and neck cancer: A systematic review of current clinical trials

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  1. Possible Modifiers of the Association Between Change in Weight Status From Child Through Adult Ages and Later Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

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  2. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and height and risks of endometriosis and adenomyosis

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  3. Early life body size and its associations with adult bladder cancer

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  4. Early life body size in relation to risk of renal cell carcinoma in adulthood: a Danish observational cohort study

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  5. Leptin, adiponectin, and their ratio as markers of insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk in childhood obesity

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BACKGROUND: Early smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinations have been associated with reduced risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We assessed the association between pre-school smallpox vaccination and early-school BCG vaccination and CMM in a young Danish population.

METHODS: We conducted a register-based case-cohort study of individuals growing up during the phase-out period of smallpox and BCG vaccination in Denmark (born 1965-1976) utilising the decrease in vaccination during this period. Information on childhood vaccinations and potential confounders from Copenhagen school health records were linked with nationwide registers on cancer (CMM diagnoses), migrations and deaths by personal identification numbers.

RESULTS: The individuals were followed from age 18 until 31/12/2014 (maximum age at end of follow-up, 49 years). 188 cases of CMM occurred in the background population of 46,239 individuals; 172 CMM cases (91%) had full information and were analysed. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CMM by BCG and/or smallpox vaccination compared with neither vaccine was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-2.31). For smallpox vaccination only, HR = 1.23 (95% CI 0.53-2.86) for BCG vaccination only, HR = 1.13 (95% CI 0.61-2.09) and for both smallpox and BCG vaccination, HR = 1.75 (95% CI 0.87-3.48) compared with none of these. Vaccination below the age of one year gave similar results.

CONCLUSIONS: We found no strong beneficial effect of smallpox and BCG vaccination against CMM among young adult Danes and with broad confidence intervals our data alone could be compatible with both modest preventive effects, no effects, and modest harmful effects. Our estimates do not contradict a potential modest beneficial effect of neonatal vaccination.

Original languageEnglish
JournalVaccine
Volume37
Issue number44
Pages (from-to)6730-6736
Number of pages7
ISSN0264-410X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Oct 2019

    Research areas

  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, Cancer, Cutaneous malignant melanoma, Heterologous immunity, Non-specific effects of vaccines, Smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia

ID: 58076322