Simulation-Based Virtual-Reality Patient-Specific Rehearsal Prior to Endovascular Procedures: A Systematic Review

Caroline Albrecht-Beste Nielsen, Lars Lönn, Lars Konge, Mikkel Taudorf


Patient-specific rehearsal (PsR) is a new concept whereby a procedure can be rehearsed virtually using the exact patient's anatomical data prior to performing the real procedure. The aim of this study was to ascertain if endovascular virtual-reality PsR simulation enhanced performance in real life. This was done by performing a systematic review following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science concerning PsR in endovascular procedures. All publications were handled using Covidence. Reference lists were also screened. Data extracted from the studies were realism rating, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, number of angiograms and reduction of errors. Kirkpatrick's four-level model for measuring the efficiency of training was used for guidance of the relevance of studies. The search yielded 1155 results after the exclusion of duplicates, and 11 studies were included. Four studies had a control group, including one randomized trial; the remaining seven were feasibility studies. The realism was rated high, and overall, the studies showed improvements in procedure time, fluoroscopy time and contrast volume after PsR. One study assessed and confirmed the reduction in errors after PsR. Only two studies included more than 15 patients in their cohort. Kirkpatrick's model was applied to all studies, with one study reaching level 4. All studies found the concept of PsR to be feasible and realistic. The studies with a control group showed a reduction of overall procedure time, radiation exposure and potential errors in endovascular procedures following PsR.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2020


Dive into the research topics of 'Simulation-Based Virtual-Reality Patient-Specific Rehearsal Prior to Endovascular Procedures: A Systematic Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this