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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
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Short-term Effects of Low Carbohydrate Diet on Glycaemic Parameters and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes - A Randomised Open-label Cross-over Trial

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The objective was to compare effects of high carbohydrate diet (HCD) versus low carbohydrate diet (LCD) on glycaemic parameters and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (4 women, insulin pump-treated, median±SD age: 48 ± 10 years, HbA1c: 53 ± 6 mmol/mol (7.0 ± 0.6%)) followed one week of isocaloric HCD (≥250 g/day) and one week of isocaloric LCD (≤50 g/day) in random order. After each week, we downloaded pump and sensor data and collected fasting blood and urine samples. Diet compliance was high (225 ± 30 vs 47 ± 10 g carbohydrates/day, p < 0.0001). Mean sensor glucose levels were similar between diets (7.3 ± 1.1 vs 7.4 ± 0.6 mmol/l, p = 0.99). LCD resulted in more time in 3.9-10.0 mmol/l (83 ± 9 vs 72 ± 11%, p = 0.02), less time ≤3.9 mmol/l (3.3 ± 2.8 vs 8.0 ± 6.3%, p = 0.03), and less glucose variability (SD 1.9 ± 0.4 vs 2.6 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p = 0.02) than HCD. Cardiovascular markers were unaffected, while fasting glucagon, ketone and free fatty acid levels were higher at end of the LCD-week than the HCD-week. In conclusion, LCD resulted in more time in euglycaemia, less time in hypoglycaemia and less glucose variability than HCD without altering mean glucose levels.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Online
Volume19
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)1479-1484
ISSN1463-1326
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017

    Research areas

  • Journal Article

ID: 50159069