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Sex steroid action in adolescence: too much, too little; too early, too late: Sex steroid action in adolescence: too much, too little; too early, too late

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Abstract: This review aims to cover the subject of sex steroid action in adolescence. It will include situations with too little sex steroid action, as seen in for example, Turners syndrome and androgen insensitivity issues, too much sex steroid action as seen in adolescent PCOS, CAH and gynecomastia, too late sex steroid action as seen in constitutional delay of growth and puberty and too early sex steroid action as seen in precocious puberty. This review will cover the etiology, the signs and symptoms which the clinician should be attentive to, important differential diagnoses to know and be able to distinguish, long-term health and social consequences of these hormonal disorders and the course of action with regards to medical treatment in the pediatric endocrinological department and for the general practitioner. This review also covers situations with exogenous sex steroid application for therapeutic purposes in the adolescent and young adult. This includes gender-affirming therapy in the transgender child and hormone treatment of tall statured children. It gives some background information of the cause of treatment, the patient's motivation for medicating (or self-medicating), long-term consequences of exogenous sex steroid treatment and clinical outcome of this treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume184
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)R17-R28
ISSN0804-4643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 European Society of Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain

Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Adolescent, Adolescent Health, Endocrine System Diseases/drug therapy, Female, Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism, Humans, Male, Puberty/metabolism, Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy, Young Adult

ID: 61413166