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Severely Disseminated Kaposi Sarcoma after ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation Treated Successfully with Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Combined with Hemodialysis

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Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is driven by human herpes virus 8 causing vascular proliferation which is induced by loss of immune function most often due to HIV or immunosuppressants. KS occurs with increased incidence in kidney transplant recipients, but rarely is disseminated. We report a 64-year-old male who developed severely disseminated KS 5 months after ABO-incompatible kidney-transplantation. No guidelines for chemotherapy exist in this case and reduced kidney function and impaired immune system complicates the use of systemic chemotherapy in kidney transplant recipients. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine followed by two days of hemodialysis treatment was chosen since paclitaxel can be given in full dose independently of kidney function and gemcitabine is metabolised to 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine which is found to be highly dialysable. The present treatment was well tolerated by the patient with one episode of leukopenia and elevated alanine transaminase during treatment which resolved. There were no serious adverse events and the patient obtained a complete remission verified by Positron Emission Tomography CT after ending chemotherapy and at one-year follow up.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCase reports in transplantation
Pages (from-to)8105649
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 59304456