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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
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Serum potassium in the PARADIGM-HF trial

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  • João Pedro Ferreira
  • Ulrik M Mogensen
  • Pardeep S Jhund
  • Akshay S Desai
  • Jean-Lucien Rouleau
  • Michael R Zile
  • Patrick Rossignol
  • Faiez Zannad
  • Milton Packer
  • Scott D Solomon
  • John J V McMurray
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AIMS: The associations between potassium level and outcomes, the effect of sacubitril-valsartan on potassium level, and whether potassium level modified the effect of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction were studied in PARADIGM-HF. Several outcomes, including cardiovascular death, sudden death, pump failure death, non-cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization, were examined.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 8399 patients were randomized to either enalapril or sacubitril-valsartan. Potassium level at randomization and follow-up was examined as a continuous and categorical variable (≤3.5, 3.6-4.0, 4.1-4.9, 5.0-5.4 and ≥5.5 mmol/L) in various statistical models. Hyperkalaemia was defined as K+  ≥5.5 mmol/L and hypokalaemia as K+  ≤3.5 mmol/L. Compared with potassium 4.1-4.9 mmol/L, both hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-3.14] and hyperkalaemia (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.83) were associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular death. However, potassium abnormalities were similarly associated with sudden death and pump failure death, as well as non-cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization. Sacubitril-valsartan had no effect on potassium overall. The benefit of sacubitril-valsartan over enalapril was consistent across the range of baseline potassium levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Although both higher and lower potassium levels were independent predictors of cardiovascular death, potassium abnormalities may mainly be markers rather than mediators of risk for death.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Volume22
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)2056-2064
Number of pages9
ISSN1388-9842
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020

ID: 62333211