BACKGROUND: The purpose of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors following salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in a consecutive national cohort.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 259 patients received SRT in Denmark. Patient- and cancer-related characteristics were retrospectively retrieved from patient charts. The primary end point was biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS).
RESULTS: At the end of follow-up, 51% of the patients displayed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <0.1 ng/ml. The three-year b-PFS rate for the total cohort was 57.0%. Nearly half of the patients (44%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with SRT. Positive surgical tumour margins (p = 0.025) and ADT (p = 0.001) were the only markers independently correlated with b-PFS. In patients who received SRT without ADT, both a pre-SRT PSA level ≤0.5 ng/ml (p = 0.003) and pathological tumour stage T1-T2 (p = 0.036) independently correlated with b-PFS. Moreover, a duration between radical prostatectomy (RP) and SRT ≤29 months (p = 0.035) independently correlated with b-PFS in patients treated with ADT in combination with RT.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated for biochemical failure after RP, positive surgical tumour margins and PSA levels ≤0.5 ng/mL at the time of SRT were associated with a favourable outcome. Despite less favourable tumour characteristics, patients receiving SRT and ADT demonstrated improved b-PFS, and in particular, patients with PSA levels >0.2 ng/ml benefitted from additional ADT.