STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with minimum of 5-years follow-up.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the peri- and postoperative complications rates, ectopic bone migration, and reoperation rates, and secondly evaluate the 5-year patient reported outcomes (PROs), in patients treated with decompression and non-instrumented posterolateral fusion with ABM/P-15 or allograft.
METHODS: Patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were enrolled in a Randomized Clinical Trial and randomized 1:1 to either ABM/P-15 or allograft bone. Patient Reported Outcomes were collected at 5-year follow-up, and patients were invited to a clinical follow-up including a computed tomography scan (CT) to evaluate signs of osteolysis, ectopic bone formation, and bone migration.
RESULTS: Of 101 subjects enrolled in the primary study, 83 patients were available for the 5-year follow-up. We found a statistically significant difference in back pain and Oswestry Disability Index between groups. Fifty-eight patients agreed to participate in the CT study. Sixty percentage in the ABM/P-15 group vs 30% in the allograft group was classified as fused (P = .037). There were no differences in complications, reoperation-, or infection rates between the 2 groups. We found 2 patients with migration of graft material. Both patients were asymptomatic at minimum 5-year follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that complication rates are no higher in patients treated with ABM/P-15 than allograft. We found significantly higher fusion rates in the AMB/P-15 group than in the allograft group, and patients in the ABM/P-15 group reported less back pain and lower disability score at 5-year follow-up.