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Risk Factors for the Development of Post-Traumatic Headache Attributed to Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

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OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify risk factors for the development of post-traumatic headache (PTH) attributed to traumatic brain injury (TBI) as defined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD).

BACKGROUND: PTH is a common sequela of TBI and a leading cause of injury-related disability worldwide. However, little is known about risk factors for the development of PTH attributed to TBI.

METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for literature on risk factors for the development of acute and/or persistent PTH attributed to TBI in accordance with any version of the ICHD. Original studies published in English and of prospective, cross-sectional or retrospective design were considered for the review. Data extraction was performed independently by 2 investigators.

RESULTS: Of 1993 potentially relevant articles identified, 3 articles met the inclusion criteria. The following risk factors were assessed for the development of acute PTH: age, sex, type of injury, loss of consciousness, previous TBIs, history of primary headache disorders, history of chronic pain condition other than headache, current treatment for depression/anxiety, attention or learning disorders, body mass index, and other diseases (not further specified). None of the included studies assessed risk factors for the development of persistent PTH.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that there is little evidence for any risk factors involved in the development of acute PTH, whereas no study had assessed risk factors for the development of persistent PTH. Further studies are warranted and should be powered to examine possible risk factors for the development of PTH. Rigorous methodology and standardized monitoring should be prioritized to support high-quality research and validate potential findings.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHeadache
Volume60
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1066-1075
Number of pages10
ISSN0017-8748
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 60054119