INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess risk factors for difficult fetal extraction in emergency caesarean sections, focusing on top-up epidural anesthesia compared to spinal anesthesia. Additionally, this study addressed consequences of difficult fetal extraction on neonatal and maternal morbidity.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective registry-based cohort study included 2,332 of 2,892 emergency caesarean sections performed with local anesthesia during 2010-2017. Main outcomes were analyzed by crude and multiple adjusted logistic regression providing odds ratios.
RESULTS: Difficult fetal extraction was found in 14.9% of emergency caesarean sections. Risk-factors for difficult fetal extraction included top-up epidural anesthesia (aOR:1.37[95 %CI 1.04-1.81]), high pre-pregnancy BMI (aOR:1.41[95 %CI 1.05-1.89]), deep fetal descent (ischial spine: aOR:2.53[95 %CI 1.89-3.39], pelvic floor: aOR:3.11[95 %CI 1.32-7.33]), and anterior placental position (aOR:1.37[95 %CI 1.06-1.77]). Difficult fetal extraction was associated with increased risk of low umbilical artery pH 7.00-7.09 (aOR:3.50[95 %CI 1.98-6.15]) pH ≤ 6.99 (aOR:4.20[95 %CI 1.61-10.91]), five-minute Apgar score ≤ 6 (aOR:3.41[95 %CI 1.49-7.83]) and maternal blood loss (501-1,000 ml: aOR:1.65[95 %CI 1.27-2.16], 1,001-1,500 ml: aOR:3.24[95 %CI 2.24-4.67], 1,501-2,000 ml: aOR:3.94[95 %CI 2.24-6.94] and ≥ 2001 ml: aOR:2.76[95 %CI 1.12-6.82]).
CONCLUSION: This study identified four risk factors for difficult fetal extraction in emergency caesarean section: top-up epidural anesthesia, high maternal BMI, deep fetal descent and anterior placental position. Additionally, difficult fetal extraction was associated with poor neonatal and maternal outcomes.
|Journal||European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|