Rhinitis prevalence and association with atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Mette Hjorslev Knudgaard, Thomas Holger Andreasen, Nanna Ravnborg, Thomas Bieber, Jonathan I Silverberg, Alexander Egeberg, Anne-Sofie Halling, Jacob P Thyssen


BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and rhinitis are common atopic diseases that may co-occur owing to an overlap in pathophysiology. Although most cases of both diseases are mild and managed with topical anti-inflammatory medicaments, the advent of new systemic and biologic treatments targeting type 2 inflammation in both diseases warrants further insight in the exact overlap of AD and rhinitis.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between AD and rhinitis.

METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the databases PubMed, Embase, and CNKI were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Pooled prevalence and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.

RESULTS: The search resulted in 10,422 citations, and 341 and 302 articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively. The pooled prevalence of rhinitis was 40.5% (95% CI 39.0-42.0) in patients with AD and 18.0% (95% CI 16.7-19.2) in the reference individuals without AD. The pooled prevalence of having both rhinitis and asthma was 14.2% (95% CI 13.0-15.5) in patients with AD. There was an association between AD and rhinitis (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.83-3.18), allergic rhinitis (OR 3.25, 95% CI 2.26-4.66), and nonallergic rhinitis (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.39-2.86), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Rhinitis, both allergic and nonallergic forms, is very common in patients with AD. Future investigations should clarify how medications targeting both diseases should be indicated in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)49-56.e1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Asthma/epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis/epidemiology
  • Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology
  • Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors


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