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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
E-pub ahead of print

Replication and cross-validation of type 2 diabetes subtypes based on clinical variables: an IMI-RHAPSODY study

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  • Roderick C Slieker
  • Louise A Donnelly
  • Hugo Fitipaldi
  • Gerard A Bouland
  • Giuseppe N Giordano
  • Mikael Åkerlund
  • Mathias J Gerl
  • Emma Ahlqvist
  • Ashfaq Ali
  • Iulian Dragan
  • Andreas Festa
  • Michael K Hansen
  • Dina Mansour Aly
  • Min Kim
  • Dmitry Kuznetsov
  • Florence Mehl
  • Christian Klose
  • Kai Simons
  • Imre Pavo
  • Timothy J Pullen
  • Tommi Suvitaival
  • Asger Wretlind
  • Peter Rossing
  • Valeriya Lyssenko
  • Cristina Legido-Quigley
  • Leif Groop
  • Bernard Thorens
  • Paul W Franks
  • Mark Ibberson
  • Guy A Rutter
  • Joline W J Beulens
  • Leen M 't Hart
  • Ewan R Pearson
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Five clusters based on clinical characteristics have been suggested as diabetes subtypes: one autoimmune and four subtypes of type 2 diabetes. In the current study we replicate and cross-validate these type 2 diabetes clusters in three large cohorts using variables readily measured in the clinic.

METHODS: In three independent cohorts, in total 15,940 individuals were clustered based on age, BMI, HbA1c, random or fasting C-peptide, and HDL-cholesterol. Clusters were cross-validated against the original clusters based on HOMA measures. In addition, between cohorts, clusters were cross-validated by re-assigning people based on each cohort's cluster centres. Finally, we compared the time to insulin requirement for each cluster.

RESULTS: Five distinct type 2 diabetes clusters were identified and mapped back to the original four All New Diabetics in Scania (ANDIS) clusters. Using C-peptide and HDL-cholesterol instead of HOMA2-B and HOMA2-IR, three of the clusters mapped with high sensitivity (80.6-90.7%) to the previously identified severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD), severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) and mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD) clusters. The previously described ANDIS mild age-related diabetes (MARD) cluster could be mapped to the two milder groups in our study: one characterised by high HDL-cholesterol (mild diabetes with high HDL-cholesterol [MDH] cluster), and the other not having any extreme characteristic (mild diabetes [MD]). When these two milder groups were combined, they mapped well to the previously labelled MARD cluster (sensitivity 79.1%). In the cross-validation between cohorts, particularly the SIDD and MDH clusters cross-validated well, with sensitivities ranging from 73.3% to 97.1%. SIRD and MD showed a lower sensitivity, ranging from 36.1% to 92.3%, where individuals shifted from SIRD to MD and vice versa. People belonging to the SIDD cluster showed the fastest progression towards insulin requirement, while the MDH cluster showed the slowest progression.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Clusters based on C-peptide instead of HOMA2 measures resemble those based on HOMA2 measures, especially for SIDD, SIRD and MOD. By adding HDL-cholesterol, the MARD cluster based upon HOMA2 measures resulted in the current clustering into two clusters, with one cluster having high HDL levels. Cross-validation between cohorts showed generally a good resemblance between cohorts. Together, our results show that the clustering based on clinical variables readily measured in the clinic (age, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, BMI and C-peptide) results in informative clusters that are representative of the original ANDIS clusters and stable across cohorts. Adding HDL-cholesterol to the clustering resulted in the identification of a cluster with very slow glycaemic deterioration.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetologia
ISSN0012-186X
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Jun 2021

ID: 66944691