Increased oxidative stress in obesity and diabetes is associated with morbidity and mortality risks. Levels of oxidative damage to DNA and RNA can be estimated through measurement of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) in urine. Both markers have been associated with type 2 diabetes, where especially 8-oxoGuo is prognostic for mortality risk. We hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery that has considerable effects on bodyweight, hyperglycemia and mortality, might be working through mechanisms that reduce oxidative stress, thereby reducing levels of the urinary markers. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the content of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo in urinary samples from 356 obese patients treated with the RYGB-procedure. Mean age (SD) was 44.2 (9.6) years, BMI was 42.1 (5.6) kg/m2. Ninety-six (27%) of the patients had type 2 diabetes. Excretion levels of each marker before and after surgery were compared as estimates of the total 24-hour excretion, using a model based on glomerular filtration rate (calculated from cystatin C, age, height and weight), plasma- and urinary creatinine. The excretion of 8-oxodG increased in the first months after RYGB. For 8-oxoGuo, a gradual decrease was seen. Two years after RYGB and a mean weight loss of 35 kg, decreased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, excretion levels of both markers were reduced by approximately 12% (P < 0.001). For both markers, mean excretion levels were about 30% lower in the female subgroup (P < 0.0001). Also, in this subgroup, excretion of 8-oxodG was significantly lower in patients with than without diabetes. We conclude, that oxidative damage to nucleic acids, reflected in the excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo, had decreased significantly two years after RYGB-indicating that reduced oxidative stress could be contributing to the many long-term benefits of RYGB-surgery in obesity and type 2 diabetes.