It is currently unknown whether alterations in the skin microbiome exist before development of atopic dermatitis (AD). In this prospective Danish birth cohort of 300 children, we examined whether skin microbiome alterations during the first 2 months of life were associated with an increased risk of AD in the first 2 years and its severity after adjustment for environmental factors and selected skin chemokine and natural moisturizing factor levels. We found no overall association between the skin microbiome at birth and age 2 months and AD during the first 2 years of life. However, when restricting the analysis to children with at least one parent with atopy, a lower alpha diversity at age 2 months was associated with an increased risk of AD (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.6). We observed a stronger association in children where both parents had atopy (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-18.2). The putative pathogenic role of changes in the skin microbiome on AD risk remains uncertain but may play a role in those with an atopic predisposition.