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Recovery of slow potentials in AC-coupled electrocorticography: application to spreading depolarizations in rat and human cerebral cortex

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Cortical spreading depolarizations (spreading depressions and peri-infarct depolarizations) are a pathology intrinsic to acute brain injury, generating large negative extracellular slow potential changes (SPCs) that, lasting on the order of minutes, are studied with DC-coupled recordings in animals. The spreading SPCs of depolarization waves are observed in human cortex with AC-coupled electrocorticography (ECoG), although SPC morphology is distorted by the high-pass filter stage of the amplifiers. Here, we present a signal processing method to reverse these distortions and recover approximate full-band waveforms from AC-coupled recordings. We constructed digital filters that reproduced the phase and amplitude distortions introduced by specific AC-coupled amplifiers and, based on this characterization, derived digital inverse filters to remove these distortions from ECoG recordings. Performance of the inverse filter was validated by its ability to recover both simulated and real low-frequency input test signals. The inverse filter was then applied to AC-coupled ECoG recordings from five patients who underwent invasive monitoring after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For 117 SPCs, the inverse filter recovered full-band waveforms with morphologic characteristics typical of the negative DC shifts recorded in animals. Compared with those recorded in the rat cortex with the same analog and digital methods, the negative DC shifts of human depolarizations had significantly greater durations (1:47 vs. 0:45 min:sec) and peak-to-peak amplitudes (10.1 vs. 4.2 mV). The inverse filter thus permits the study of spreading depolarizations in humans, using the same assessment of full-band DC potentials as that in animals, and suggests a particular solution for recovery of biosignals recorded with frequency-limited amplifiers.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Neurophysiology
Volume102
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)2563-75
Number of pages12
ISSN0022-3077
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Keywords: Animals; Cerebral Cortex; Cortical Spreading Depression; Electrodes, Implanted; Electroencephalography; Humans; Male; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted; Species Specificity; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

ID: 172075