Rate of response to initial antiretroviral therapy according to level of pre-existing HIV-1 drug resistance detected by next-generation sequencing in the strategic timing of antiretroviral treatment (START) study

Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri*, David Dunn, Anna Tostevin, Rasmus L Marvig, Marc Bennedbaek, Shweta Sharma, Michael J Kozal, Mark Gompels, Angie N Pinto, Jens Lundgren, John D Baxter, INSIGHT START Study Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of pre-existing drug resistance by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the risk of treatment failure (TF) of first-line regimens in participants enrolled in the START study.

METHODS: Stored plasma from participants with entry HIV RNA >1000 copies/mL were analysed using NGS (llumina MiSeq). Pre-existing drug resistance was defined using the mutations considered by the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB v8.6) to calculate the genotypic susceptibility score (GSS, estimating the number of active drugs) for the first-line regimen at the detection threshold windows of >20%, >5%, and >2% of the viral population. Survival analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the GSS and risk of TF (viral load >200 copies/mL plus treatment change).

RESULTS: Baseline NGS data were available for 1380 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve participants enrolled over 2009-2013. First-line ART included a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in 976 (71%), a boosted protease inhibitor in 297 (22%), or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor in 107 (8%). The proportions of participants with GSS <3 were 7% for >20%, 10% for >5%, and 17% for the >2% thresholds, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio of TF associated with a GSS of 0-2.75 versus 3 in the subset of participants with mutations detected at the >2% threshold was 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.74; p = 0.05) and 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.32-4.09; p = 0.003) after restricting the analysis to participants who started an NNRTI-based regimen.

CONCLUSIONS: Up to 17% of participants initiated ART with a GSS <3 on the basis of NGS data. Minority variants were predictive of TF, especially for participants starting NNRTI-based regimens.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHIV Medicine
Volume25
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)212-222
Number of pages11
ISSN1464-2662
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology
  • Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics
  • HIV Infections/epidemiology
  • HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy
  • HIV-1/genetics
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
  • Viral Load

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