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Randomized Trial of 2 Versus 1 Dose of Measles Vaccine: Effect on Hospital Admission of Children After 9 Months of Age

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  • Marie Brønd
  • Cesario L Martins
  • Stine Byberg
  • Christine S Benn
  • Hilton Whittle
  • May-Lill Garly
  • Peter Aaby
  • Ane B Fisker
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Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we investigated the effect on hospital admissions.

Methods: Children were randomly assigned 1:2 to receive MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age or the currently recommended dose at 9 months. We compared hospital admission rates among children between 9 and 18 months of age in a Cox regression model with age as the underlying time scale. Half of the children had received neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in another trial. The beneficial effect of MV at 4.5 and 9 months on mortality was limited to children who had not received NVAS; therefore, we investigated the interaction of MV with NVAS on admission rates.

Results: Among 5626 children (2 doses of MV, 1960 children; 1 dose of MV, 3666), we identified 311 hospital admissions of children between 9 and 18 months of age. Overall, compared to 1 dose of MV, 2 doses reduced the risk of hospital admission for children who had not received NVAS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.93]), but we found no effect among NVAS recipients (HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.82-1.63]) (P = .02 for interaction).

Conclusions: The benefit of 2 doses of MV was limited to children who had not received NVAS. NVAS is not generally recommended; hence, an early 2-dose measles vaccination policy might reduce hospital admissions more than the current policy of providing the first MV at 9 months of age.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00168558.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume7
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)226-233
ISSN0891-3668
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes

    Research areas

  • Journal Article

ID: 51905534