Quantification of fluorescence angiography: Toward a reliable intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion - A narrative review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Accurate intraoperative assessments of tissue perfusion are essential in all forms of surgery. As traditional methods of perfusion assessments are not available during minimally invasive surgery, novel methods are required. Here, fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green has shown promising results. However, to secure objective and reproducible assessments, quantification of the fluorescent signal is essential (Q-ICG). This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the current status and applicability of Q-ICG for intraoperative perfusion assessment. Results: Both commercial and custom Q-ICG software solutions are available for intraoperative use; however, most studies on Q-ICG have performed post-operative analyses. Q-ICG can be divided into inflow parameters (ttp, t0, slope, and T1/2max) and intensity parameters (Fmax, PI, and DR). The intensity parameters appear unreliable in clinical settings. In comparison, inflow parameters, mainly slope, and T1/2max have had superior clinical performance. Conclusion: Intraoperative Q-ICG is clinically available; however, only feasibility studies have been performed, rendering an excellent usability score. Q-ICG in a post-operative setting could detect changes in perfusion following a range of interventions and reflect clinical endpoints, but only if based on inflow parameters. Thus, future studies should include the methodology outlined in this review, emphasizing the use of inflow parameters (slope or T1/2max), a mass-adjusted ICG dosing, and a fixed camera position.

Original languageEnglish
JournalLangenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)251-259
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Indocyanine green
  • Intraoperative
  • Optimization
  • Perfusion assessment
  • Quantitative fluorescence angiography


Dive into the research topics of 'Quantification of fluorescence angiography: Toward a reliable intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion - A narrative review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this