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Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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  • Yuhan Karida Liu
  • Susan Ling
  • Leanna M W Lui
  • Felicia Ceban
  • Maj Vinberg
  • Lars Vedel Kessing
  • Roger C Ho
  • Taeho Greg Rhee
  • Hartej Gill
  • Bing Cao
  • Rodrigo B Mansur
  • Yena Lee
  • Joshua Rosenblat
  • Kayla M Teopiz
  • Roger S McIntyre
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OBJECTIVES: The study herein aimed to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), as well as general and abdominal obesity in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We also compared the prevalence of T2DM and general obesity in patients with BD with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

METHODS: A systematic search of Embase, Medline, PubMed, and APA PsycArticles was conducted from inception to June 2021 without language restrictions. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) modified for case-control studies.

RESULTS: A total of forty-nine studies were included in this analysis. The pooled prevalence of T2DM was 9.6% (95% CI, 7.3-12.2%). Patients with BD had a nearly 1.6 times greater risk of developing T2DM compared to their age- and gender-matched controls (RR=1.57, 95% CI 1.36-1.81, p<0.001). In the present analysis, IFG is defined as a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 100 mg/dL (FPG≥100) with a prevalence of 22.4% (95% CI, 16.7-28.7%), or as an FPG equal to or greater than 110 mg/d (FPG≥110) with a prevalence of 14.8% (95% CI, 10.8-19.3%). The prevalence of general obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was 29.0% (95% CI, 22.8-35.6%); the risk of obesity was almost twice the rate reported in patients with BD compared to controls (RR=1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.12, p<0.001). We also observed that more than half of the BD participants had abdominal obesity (i.e., prevalence of 51.1%; 95% CI, 45.0-57.3%).

LIMITATIONS: A significant degree of heterogeneity was detected. Sources of heterogeneity included differences in study designs, inclusion criteria, measurement tools, and data analysis methods.

CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder is associated with a higher prevalence of T2DM, IFG, general obesity, and abdominal obesity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity are significantly more prevalent in patients with BD than in their age- and gender-matched controls.


Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Pages (from-to)449-461
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Research areas

  • Bipolar Disorder/complications, Blood Glucose, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications, Fasting, Glucose, Humans, Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology, Obesity/complications, Prevalence

ID: 76479588