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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
E-pub ahead of print

Prevalence and association with birth outcomes of low Vitamin D levels among pregnant women living with HIV

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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of low vitamin D levels among well-treated pregnant women living with HIV (WLWH) on combination antiretroviral therapy in Denmark, to identify risk factors of low vitamin D levels, and to assess the association between vitamin D status and birth outcomes.

DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study.

METHODS: All WLWH in Denmark giving birth from 2000-2018 with a vitamin D measurement during pregnancy were identified. Risk factors for low vitamin D (deficiency or insufficiency) were assessed using log-binomial regression models, both univariate and adjusted for maternal and HIV factors. The association between vitamin D status and birth outcomes was assessed using linear regression models for continues outcomes and log-binomial models for binary outcomes.

RESULTS: Among 208 WLWH, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 13%, insufficiency 34%, and sufficiency 53%. Being of African origin (RR 2.68, p = 0.01), Asian origin (RR 3.38, p = < 0.01), or having HIV RNA levels >50 copies/mL (RR 1.43, p = 0.04) was associated with an increased risk of low vitamin D level. WLWH with vitamin D deficiency had an increased risk of preterm birth (RR 2.66, p = 0.03) and giving birth to small for gestational age (SGA) children (RR 6.83, p = 0.02) compared to WLWH with sufficient vitamin D level.

CONCLUSION: Low vitamin D level was prevalent among well-treated pregnant WLWH in Denmark, especially among women of African or Asian origin, and women with detectable viral loads. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and SGA.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAIDS
ISSN0269-9370
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Mar 2021

ID: 64732043